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Questions on the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS)
that relate to one another and constitute each of three factors associated with
racial attitudes. Participants rated them on a 5-point scale of 1 (Not at all
appropriate or clear) to 5 (Very appropriate or clear). The researchers used
factor analysis to find out which questions on the CoBRAS related most closely
to one another. For half the questions, a score of 5 reflected less awareness
of racial problems; for the other half, marked with an asterisk (*), a score
of 5 reflected greater awareness. (Neville, H. A., Lilly, R. L., Duran, G.,
Lee, R. M., & Browne, L., 2000).
The questions on the CoBRAS fell into three related categories (i.e., the responses
to the items were correlated with one another and were relatively unrelated
to other items), as indicated below. What labels would you give to each of the
- *White people in the U.S. have certain advantages because of the color of
- *Race is very important in determining who is successful and who is not.
- *Race plays an important role in who gets sent to prison.
- *Race plays a major role in the type of social services (such as type of
health care or day care) that people receive in the U.S.
- *Racial and ethnic minorities do not have the same opportunities as while
people in the U.S.
- Everyone who works hard, no matter what race they are, has an equal chance
to become rich.
- *White people are more to blame for racial discrimination than racial and
- Social policies, such as affirmative action, discriminate unfairly against
- * White people in the U.S. are discriminated against because of the color
of their skin.
- English should be the only official language in the U.S.
- *Due to racial discrimination, programs such as affirmative action are necessary
to help create equality.
- Racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. have certain advantages because
of the color of their skin.
- It is important that people begin to think of themselves as American and
not African American, Mexican American or Italian American.
- Immigrants should try to fit into the culture and values of the U.S.
- Racial problems in the U.S. are rare, isolated situations.
- Talking about racial issues causes unnecessary tension.
- *Racism is a major problem in the U.S.
- *It is important for public schools to teach about the history and contributions
of racial and ethnic minorities.
- *It is important for political leaders to talk about racism to help work
through or solve society’s problems.
- Racism may have been a problem in the past, it is is not an important problem
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