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Ithaca College Undergraduate Catalog 2002-2003

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    Anthropology Courses

339-10300 Biological Anthropology   NS LA 2a

     Introduces the study of humans as biological beings, including evolutionary principles, primate behavior, the fossil record of human evolution, and biological variation in modern populations resulting from various factors. 3 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-10400 Cultural Anthropology   SS LA 1a, 1b, g

    Explores the diversity of the world's societies, including "primitive" hunter-gatherer societies, herding pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists, and industrial peoples in rural and urban places. It emphasizes the role of culture in shaping human adaptations and human actions, and promotes understanding of other cultures. This course examines the way anthropologists do fieldwork, and looks at the contributions anthropology can make to an understanding of modernization, social change, urbanization, race relations, and cross-cultural communication. Reflecting the research experiences of individual professors, different sections of this course emphasize different cultures or regions of the world. 3 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-10700 World Prehistory   SS LA 1b, h, g

     Discusses the major achievements of prehistoric humans -- from the beginning of culture ca. 2.5 million years b.c. to the rise of the earliest civilizations a few thousand years ago. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-12900 Introduction to Global Studies   SS LA 1a, 1b, g

     Examines interconnections among third world and industrialized nations from both cross-cultural and interdisciplinary perspectives. Issues studied include population pressure, ecological crises, food and famine, domestic peace and national security, and development/underdevelopment. The course also explores alternative models and futures, and emphasizes global citizenship and individual empowerment. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: 339-12900, 310-12900, or 640-12900. 3 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-15400 Crossing Cultures: The Anthropology of International Travel   LA

    Examines tourism and travel in their various forms and the issues raised, including tourism's social impact and role in globalization, and introduces an anthropological perspective on the process of crossing cultures. In addition, the course explores such anthropological concepts as culture, ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, value conflict, and culture shock, relying on both first-person and novelistic accounts by anthropologists and other travelers, as well as analyses by tourism professionals. In the process, students consider the qualitative difference between tourism and travel -- from the perspective of both hosts and guests -- with a goal of becoming more introspective tourists and travelers. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-19000 Selected Topics in Anthropology   SS LA

     Special courses may be offered at the introductory level that encompass broad anthropological interest or issues. This course may be repeated for credit for different selected topics. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-22000 Southeast Asia: Its Peoples and Cultures   SS LA

     Focus on the peoples of mainland and island Southeast Asia. First, students study how these peoples developed their present-day patterns and cultures. Then, they deal with the modern complexities of life in the pluralistic societies of mainland Southeast Asia. The conflicting values of upland and lowland peoples in their struggle for a share of resources in a rapidly urbanizing situation are discussed, as are the many Western influences on the East and vice-versa. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-22500 South Asia: India and Its Neighbors   SS LA 1b, g

     Exploration of cultural diversity in South Asia with focus on India; introduction to Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and the Tibetan diaspora. Background survey of the subcontinent's ecology and history provides a framework for examining themes of unity and diversity in contemporary village life, urbanization, family and gender relations, caste and class, religion and ritual, classical and folk arts, cinema, and movements for social change. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-23500 Jewish Cultures: A Worldwide View   SS LA 1b, g

     Comparative study of Jewish communities in many lands. A historical overview emphasizes themes and practices common to Jews everywhere, and examines patterns of oppression and toleration that have affected Jewish migration, continuity, and social change. Ethnographic studies introduce particular Jewish cultures in Asia, Africa, Europe, Arab lands of the Middle East, the United States, and Israel. Each Jewish culture is viewed as a unique blend of universally Jewish elements with particular economic and political survival strategies, social customs, beliefs, and creative expressions. Prerequisites: 339-10400. 3 credits. (Y)

339-23610 American Jewish Life   SS LA 1b, h

    Exploration of contemporary Jewish life in the United States from a sociocultural perspective, looking at issues in the context of both Jewish and U.S. culture and history. Topics include immigrant background and experiences; ethnicity, class, and politics; responses to discrimination and social inequality; relations with other U.S. ethnic groups; changing family and gender relations; religious movements; secular Jewish culture; responses to international issues (Holocaust, Israel); American Jewish cultural diversity. Cross-listed with 331-23610. Students may not receive credit for both 339-23610 and 331-23610. Prerequisites: 339-10400. 3 credits. (Y)

339-24100 Modern Africa   SS LA 1b, h, g

     Focus on processes at work in contemporary black Africa, rural as well as urban, colonial as well as independent. Themes include the colonial legacy; cultural change and continuity; urbanization; approaches to economic development and political modernization; and liberation movements. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-25100 People, Plants, and Culture: Ethnobotany and Archaeobotany   SS LA

    This course is an examination of the present and past interrelationships between people and plants. Students study plants as food, medicine, materials, and religion throughout the human experience, focusing on non-Western peoples. Topics include plant domestication and developmental trajectories, ethnopharmacology, Native American plant use, oral histories, and shaman-hallucinogen complexes. Also explored are the roles plants play in shaping culture and culture change, defining social boundaries, and creating status. The final section considers important current topics and debates, such as bioprospecting, genetic modification, and intellectual property rights. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 4 credits. (S, O)

339-26500 South American Prehistory   SS LA 1b, h, g

     An examination of the prehistory of the South American continent from the earliest evidence of occupation until the appearance of Europeans in the 16th century. Emphasis is placed on the cultural developments of western South America, especially Peru, due to the extensive archaeological record in that area; those cultural developments are placed in the context of the prehistory of the rest of the continent as well. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of cultural adaptation and cultural evolution. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 3 credits. (S,O)

339-26900 Mesoamerican Prehistory   SS LA 1b, h, g

     An examination of the origins and development of the Aztec, Maya, and other civilizations of Mexico and Central America, from the first human occupation of the region to the Spanish Conquest. The course uses evidence from archaeology and the writings of pre-Columbian and European chroniclers to reconstruct the lifeways of ancient Mesoamerican cultures, and examine the processes that propelled their evolution. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 3 credits. (F,O)

339-27000 North American Indians   SS LA 1b, h

     Seminar on Indian culture and background, as well as contemporary Indian problems in the continental United States. Readings on the rich and varied heritage of American Indians; research and presentations on current problems facing specific Indian groups. Prerequisites: 339-10400. 3 credits. (Y)

339-27300 The Iroquois and Their Neighbors   SS LA 1b,h

     Traces the development and current state of the Iroquois people, a vibrant and powerful Native American society of the Northeast. Looks at how the Iroquois developed out of earlier societies, and what role European contact played in their development. A substantial part of the course will be an assessment of the Iroquois today, including their social, economic, and political institutions. Additional information on neighboring societies, past and present, and their interactions with the Iroquois will also be addressed. Prerequisites: 339-10400. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-27400 Archaeological Field School   U NLA

     Introduction to archaeological fieldwork. Training in the basic techniques of archaeological research design, reconnaissance, survey, mapping, excavation, and basic field laboratory methods, including data processing, classification, and preliminary analysis. Use of a transit, laying out of grids, and identification of different kinds of archaeological data, such as ceramics, lithics, features, and ecofacts will be covered. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 6 credits. (Summer only, IRR)

339-27500 North American Prehistory   SS LA 1b,h

     A survey of the origin and development of native North American cultures from their appearance on the continent to their contact with Europeans. In addition to describing North American culture history, the course aims to instill in students an appreciation for the diversity and accomplishments of Native American cultures. Topics to be discussed include when humans arrived in North America, the origins of agriculture, and the rise of complex societies. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 3 credits. (Y)

339-27700 Native Americans and the Environment   SS, LA, 1b

    This course gives a range of perspectives on the relationships between Native Americans and the environment revolving around anthropological concepts, such as culture, ecology, and colonialism. Based on the centrality of land to Native culture and the connections between land and the sacred, students explore how land-people relations were reworked and misinterpreted following Western colonization. Topics include environmental racism, environmental justice, and the influence of government policies regarding Native access, use, and control of indigenous lands. Case studies from throughout North America, including upstate New York, exemplify conflicts over Native sacred sites and instances where Native people are revitalizing their cultures, co-managing lands such as national parks, and developing educational outreach programs. Prerequisites: 339-10400. 3 credits. (S, E)

339-27800 Northeastern Native Americans: Past and Present   SS LA

    The course is an examination of the past and present of indigenous peoples throughout northeastern North America. A background survey of the archaeological chronology covers groups ranging from hunter-gatherers to great confederacies. Themes that cross-cut time periods and regions of the northeast are studied, such as cultural ecology, resource use, gender, migrations, plant cultivation, ritual, ideology, and politics. The effects of the Euro-American contact period and the Revolutionary War are examined. Local contemporary issues discussed include revitalization movements, land claims, gaming, and the negotiation/survival of tradition. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 3 credits. (F, E)

339-28000 Anthropology of the Contemporary United States   SS LA

     An invitation to think anthropologically about the society and culture of contemporary America. Students use the methods, theory, and findings of anthropology as well as anthropological studies of other societies as a means of gaining insight into our own society. Prerequisites : 339-10400. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-28200 Anthropological Experience in Hawaii   SS LA

    This course is a fieldwork-based study of the anthropology of Hawaii. The anthropological perspective is a holistic orientation that entails not just examining one aspect of culture, but exploring the interconnections between many facets of cultural history and contemporary experience. This is accomplished in this course through a grounding in Hawaiian history and archaeology, followed by an examination of traditional agriculture, lifeways, multiculturalism, and the impact of colonization, tourism, and the native sovereignty movement. Specifically, students learn through participant observation in contexts of Hawaiian healing, sacred sites, traditional taro growing, and preserving indigenous ecology at an ethnobotanical preserve. Note: Extra fees may be charged for this course. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700. 3 credits. (O)

339-28500 Caribbean Cultures   SS LA 1b, g

     This course employs a thematic and cross-cultural approach in its examination of the cultural diversities and continuities of the Caribbean. The course includes a historical overview, paying special attention to the role of slavery and colonialism in the construction of these societies, and examines such themes as family; gender and kinship; religion and resistance; the division of labor and patterns of migration; and the social impact of tourism. Current events are stressed throughout the course, including contemporary issues having to do with the larger political economy of the region, set in their cultural and historical context. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-28800 The Theory and Practice of Anthropology   SS LA

    This course provides a history of the field of anthropology, from its origins through the late 20th century. It focuses on major themes and schools of thought that have influenced the direction and perspective of anthropologists. The course covers major trends in cultural anthropology, archaeology, and biological anthropology to provide the historical background and theory that a serious student of anthropology should have. Prerequisites for anthropology majors/minors: 339-10400. Prerequisites for others: Sophomore standing; permission of instructor. 3 credits. (S,Y)

339-29000-339-29900 Seminar in World Ethnography: Selected Topics   SS LA

     Focus on particular geographic areas not generally covered in other upper-level regional courses, e.g., Polynesia, Latin America, Middle East. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900. 2-3 credits. (Y)

339-30200 Anthropological Field Methods   SS LA

     Introduction to research techniques used in fieldwork, including philosophy of science, research design, data gathering, data recording, data analysis, basic statistics, report writing, and ethics in fieldwork. Research project. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-30500 Archaeological Methods and Techniques   NS LA

     Focus on the ways that archaeologists discover, analyze, interpret, and explain the lifestyles of past cultures. The course is arranged in the way that archaeologists approach the solution of a research problem. Topics include the nature of archaeological evidence, how data are obtained through survey and excavations, the many kinds of analysis that archaeologists use to identify past lifeways, the techniques of dating sites, and how entire prehistoric culture systems are reconstructed. Also included are discussions of the use of theory in explaining cultural change and cultural processes, and how archaeologists evaluate competing theories. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700; two courses in the social or natural sciences. 3 credits. (F,E)

339-31000 Culture and Personality   SS LA

     Effect of various cultural systems on the development of individual personalities and the influence of the individual on his or her cultural environment. Cultural patterning of sex roles; social influences on cognition and perception; development of language and thought systems in childhood socialization; cultural handling of aggression; problems in the description of personality; cultural concepts of "normal" and "abnormal" behavior; cultural use of mind-altering substances (drugs, alcohol) that affect personality; and how people define and respond to stress, tension, and change in different cultures. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (Y)

339-31400 The Beastly Mirror   SS LA

     A study of the relationship between people and domesticated animals in cultural ecology, symbolism, history, and aesthetics. The course uses material from anthropology, history, biology, art, and literature to examine African cattle, Middle Eastern shepherding, arctic reindeer, New Guinea pigs, Western pets, and India's sacred cows. Seminar format. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-32000 Anthropology of Religion   SS LA

     The religious experience from the standpoint of ethnographic field studies and from various theoretical approaches. Examines the relationships among religion, culture, and society. Explores the evolution of the anthropological study of religion. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (Y)

339-33000 Family, Kinship, and the Social Order   SS LA

     Exploration of the nature of family and kinship groups in non-Western societies; their role in religious, political, ritual, and economic processes. Alternative family and marriage forms, including polygamy, polyandry, group marriage, and spouse-exchange; significance of matriarchal and patriarchal patterns. Comparisons of egalitarian and stratified societies, Western institutions, and non-Western alternatives. Lectures, seminar, and ethnographic fieldwork by students. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

 339-33500 Women and Culture   SS LA 1b

    The lives of women vary considerably cross-culturally. This course explores the nature of this variation as well as the cultural construction of gender roles. Special attention is given to the relationship between gender roles and economics, politics, power, authority, religion, and family life. Using case studies from various regions of the world, including the United States, the course examines how women's lives are affected by their social status, race, ethnicity, and position in the life cycle. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-34000 Aging and Culture   SS LA

     Aging is a universal experience, but its meaning differs dramatically in various societies. The impact of culture on late life is explored here in primitive, peasant, third world, European, and American societies. Emphasis is given to how cultural, ecological, and value systems affect longevity; the control of power and wealth in late life; the degree to which the elderly are isolated from or engaged in their communities; and the influence of older people's gender on family, social, and religious roles. The implications of these factors for policy decisions are also explored. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900 or two courses in gerontology. 3 credits. (Y)

339-34500 Life Stories: An Ethnographic Approach   SS LA

    Focusing on the life story as a window for exploring culture and ethnographic study as a path to understanding individual lives, this seminar examines cultural content, methodology, theory, and ethical issues in a variety of life story genres, including journalism and films, as well as oral history and autobiography. Research projects include fieldwork interviews. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-35000-339-35900 Cultural Change: Selected Topics   SS LA

     Recent courses have focused on social change in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. This course may be repeated for credit for different selected topics. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (Y)

339-36400 New World Complex Societies   SS LA

     The origins and evolution of civilizations and other complex societies in two areas of the New World: prehistoric Mexico and Peru. The course focuses on select cultures, including the Maya, Aztec, and Inca, that followed different paths to achieve a high level of cultural development. Factors important in this development, including the environment, social systems, religion, and politics, are discussed. The course explores why these societies developed in order to grasp the relationships that hold a society together or tear it apart. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (S,E)

339-36500 Israel: Ethnicity, Politics, and Culture   SS LA

    Examination of society and culture in the modern state of Israel, with an emphasis placed on the interaction of ethnicity, politics, and religion. The course explores origins, self-definitions, and social interactions among diverse groups of Israeli citizens, including Jews from the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas, and Arabs who define themselves as Palestinian, Beduin, and Druze. Topics to be addressed include historical foundations of Israel; immigration and creation of a national Jewish culture; destruction and displacement of Palestinian communities; popular culture; military service, war, and occupation in the lives of Israeli Jews and non-Jews. While focusing on Israeli citizens, the course will acknowledge the interconnected lives of Palestinians striving to form their own state. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (E)

339-37000 Applied Anthropology   SS LA

     Examination of a major new career field in anthropology, comparing the activist role of the applied anthropologist with the research orientation of much of the discipline. Manner in which the perspectives, field methods, and cultural knowledge of anthropologists have been applied in planning, implementing, and evaluating economic and social change projects. Case studies documenting the complexity of projects suggest the risks, demands, and challenges of applied anthropology, as well as the potential for ethical conflict and failure. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-37200 Native American Women and Culture   SS LA 1b

    This seminar examines the diversity and commonalties of Native women's voices and experiences in multiple cultural contexts. This course explores the representation and misrepresentation of Native women by missionaries, colonists, historians, writers, and anthropologists. Perspectives of Native women as anthropologists, authors, clan mothers, and storytellers are emphasized. Political, economic, and spiritual roles of Native American women are discussed, with an emphasis on the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Other topics include mythology, health and healing, and the contributions of Native women to the American feminist movement, human rights, and environmental activism. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F, O)

339-37500 Environmental Anthropology   SS LA 1b, g

    Examination of the cultural dimensions of the sustainable use and management of natural resources in the context of global efforts to effect social change and economic development. Much of the focus is on less-developed countries' indigenous peoples, rural peasants, urban underclass, and their ethnoecologies. Critical attention is also paid to industrialized nations' impact on peoples and cultures of the third world, and to their role as dominant forces in establishing global environmental policy. Included in the course are case studies of the United States' "culture of consumption," an examination of the relationship between development and the environment, and a discussion of public policy alternatives. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (F or S,Y)

339-37600 Poverty   SS LA

     An interdisciplinary approach to the study of poverty, combining sociology and anthropology. The course examines poverty in contemporary America from three perspectives: (1) the ethnographic perspective -- understanding poverty through anthropological case studies, which is the emphasis in the course; (2) the holistic perspective -- examining the social and cultural context in which poverty exists, searching for causal factors; and (3) the applied perspective -- evaluating policy and programs for dealing with or eliminating poverty. Cross-listed with 331-37600 Poverty. Students may not receive credit for both 339-37600 and 331-37600. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-38000 Medical Anthropology   SS LA

     Comparative study of the ecological and sociocultural contexts of human health from a global perspective. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-12900; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-38200 Ethnoarchaeology   SS LA

     Ethnoarchaeology is the study of living societies from an archaeological perspective. It is particularly concerned with patterned variability in material culture (architecture, artifacts, and material by-products) and its relation to human behavior and organization. This "living archaeology" is an important component of a growing body of "middle range theory" that archaeologists use to give voice to the mute archaeological record. At the same time, it provides a deeper appreciation of the technological, economic, and symbolic roles of material culture in today's societies. Class work may include both campus and community projects that examine and illustrate the theory, methods, and results of ethnoarchaeology. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700; two other courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-38800 Origins of Agriculture   SS LA

     The development and spread of agriculture arguably changed the course of human history more than any single cultural process. This seminar reviews the history of thought and debate concerning the development of prehistoric agriculture and the processes of plant cultivation and domestication. Emphasis is placed on recent interdisciplinary developments in ethnobotany and archaeobotany that allow detailed, complex scientific evidence to be considered. Readings and discussion include historical pieces, theoretical treatises, and regional case studies from around the world. Students will learn of the diversity of anthropological theory in the context of the study and analysis of one of humanity's fundamental lifeway changes. Prerequisites: 339-10400 or 339-10700 or 303-12200; two courses in the social sciences. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-39000-339-39900 Seminar on Anthropological Issues   SS LA

     Consideration of central issues in contemporary anthropological research. Recent seminars have dealt with politics, educational systems, and economic development. Prerequisites: 339-10400; two courses in the social sciences. 2-3 credits. (Y)

339-46000-339-46900 Advanced Readings in Anthropology   U LA

     Arrangements are initiated by the student interested in a topic not covered by regular course offerings. Prerequisites: 339-10400; three other anthropology courses; permission of instructor. 1-4 credits. (F-S)

339-47000 Fieldwork and Research in Ethnography: Seminar   U LA

     Gives advanced anthropology students with a specialization in cultural anthropology an opportunity to do supervised fieldwork, as required for the major. It combines small group class meetings and out-of-class research projects. Group projects enable students to utilize and improve their skills in the methodological approaches previously learned. Research topics might include current campus or community issues, sociocultural patterns of people on campus or in the Ithaca area, and any relevant and appropriate culturally shaped behavior. Prerequisites: 339-30200. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-47200 Fieldwork and Research in Archaeology: Seminar   U LA

     Provides advanced anthropology students with a specialization in archaeology an opportunity to do supervised fieldwork, as required for the major. It combines small group class meetings and out-of-class research projects. Group projects enable students to utilize and improve their skills in the methodological approaches previously learned. Research might include reconnaissance, survey, or excavation of local sites, laboratory analysis of archaeological data already collected, or other archaeologically focused activity. Prerequisites: 339-30500. 3 credits. (IRR)

339-47500 Ethnographic Fieldwork and Research   U LA

     Offered as an alternative to 339-47000 (above) for advanced anthropology students with a focus in cultural anthropology whose research plans would benefit from a more individualized approach. The research may be conducted within or away from the Ithaca area under supervision by an anthropology faculty member. Prerequisites: 339-30200; consultation with and permission of instructor. 1-6 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-47600 Archaeological Fieldwork and Research   U LA

     An alternative to 339-47200 (above) for advanced anthropology students with a focus in archaeology whose research plans would benefit from a more individualized approach. The research may be conducted within or away from the Ithaca area under supervision by an anthropology faculty member. Prerequisites: 339-30500; consultation with and permission of instructor. 1-6 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-47700 Fieldwork and Research: Special Projects   U LA

     An alternative to 339-47000 and 339-47200 (above) for advanced anthropology students with a focus other than archaeology or ethnography whose research plans would benefit from a more individualized approach. The research may be conducted within or away from the Ithaca area under supervision by an anthropology faculty member. Prerequisites: 339-30200 or 339-30500; consultation with and permission of instructor. 1-6 credits. (F-S,Y)

339-49000 Seminar: Selected Topics in Anthropology   SS LA

     Topics of current faculty interest in departmental fields. Recent seminars have focused on anthropological perspectives on the world food crisis, concepts of adaptation in the social sciences, and the history of anthropology. This course may be repeated for credit for different selected topics. Prerequisites: 339-10400; one level-2 course in anthropology; junior standing or equivalent. 1-4 credits. (IRR)

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A. Ozolins, Office of Publications, 21. October, 2002