REVIEW SHEET #1 - Nervous System
8/25 thru 9/3

These review sheets are presented as outlines of the material covered in class.  They do not provide details, but try to highlight the important areas and concepts covered.  You should use these as a general guide to be sure that you fully understand all the major topics covered during these lectures.  This is NOT an exhaustive list, but an OVERVIEW.  You are responsible for the material covered in class, whether or not it appears on this general outline.

1.  Organization of the Nervous System
    A.  CNS
    B.  PNS
        a.  Autonomic nervous system
        b.  Somatic nervous system
        c.  Enteric nervous system

2.  Control Mechanisms
    A.  Global
    B.  Specific
    C.  Negative vs Positive feedback

3.  Neuron
    A.  Soma or cell body
    B.  Dendrite
    C.  Axon
    D.  Axon terminals

4.  Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)
     A.  unequal distribution of Na and K ions
     B.  electrochemical equilibrium potentials
     C.  Selective permeability of membrane
         a.  Leakage K channels
         b.  Permeability to K vs Na

5.  Graded potential
     A.  Amplitude varies with amp of stimulus
     B.  Decays with distance

6.  Action potential
     A.  All or none
     B.  Threshold
     C.  Depolarization = Na influx
     D.  Repolarization, afterhyperpolarization = K efflux

7.  Ion Channels of the Action Potential
    A.   Voltage-gated Na channels
        a.  Activation gate:  opens with depolarization
        b.  Inactivation gate:  closes with depolarization
    B.   Voltage-gated K channels
        a.  Activation gate:  opens with depolarization
    C.  Refractory Period
        a.  Relative refractory period - K channel recovery
        b.  Absolute refractory period - Na channel recovery

8.  Propagation of AP
    A.  Local current flow
        a.  Conduction velocity
        b.  Axon diameter
    B.  Saltatory conduction
        a.  Myelination
        b.  Schwann cells
        c.  Nodes of Ranvier
        d.  Multiple sclerosis

9.   Receptor Potentials
    A.  Mechanoreceptors
        a.  mechanically-gated ion channels
    B.  Graded (or generator) potential
        a.  varies in amplitude with stimulus
        b.  sub- or supra-threshold

10.  Synaptic Transmission
    A.  Synaptic vesicles
        a.  Neurotransmitters
    B.  Voltage-gated Ca channels
    C.  Transmitter release
        a.  vesicle fusion
        b.  exocytosis
    D.  Presynaptic vs Postsynaptic
    E.  Receptors
        a.  Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) - Na channels
        b.  Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) - K channels

Return to the Animal Physiology home page.
Visit the Biology home page.
Go to the Ithaca College home page.

Page maintained and updated by Jean Hardwick and Nancy Pierce.
Last udpated September 10, 2004.