Multicultural Education & Culturally Responsive Teaching
Minorities to Emerge as a Majority In U.S. Schools -- an article in Education Week, Sept. 27, 2000 about recent and anticipated demographic change in our society and schools.
Immigration Transforms Communities -- a 2009 article about the cultural and linguistic changes that have taken place in the community and schools of Springdale, Arkansas -- incoudes discussion of things educators there have done to address the needs of their growing population of ELL students and families.
Using Multicultural Literature in Gifted Education Programs -- an excellent article by Donna Ford, Tyrone Howard, and John Harris that includes a very helpful chart demonstrating how teachers can apply the principles of high quality multicultural education to achieve effective instruction -- this article applies to all disciplines and types of instruction.
A Synthesis of Scholarship in Multicultural Education -- a good overview essay by respected scholar, Geneva Gay.
Profoundly Multicultural Questions -- a good article by author and multicultural eduator, Sonia Nieto.
Cultural and Academic Excellence Leaves No Child Behind -- a 2003 article making the point that culturally responsive/sensitive teaching is critical to addressing the achievement gap.
Diversity, Learning Style, and Culture -- a good overview piece about the influece of culture on learning styles and the value of teaching in ways consistent with how different students learn best.
Providing Access for Culturally Diverse Gifted Students -- an article about how and why students of color are underrepresented in gifted programs and what can and should be done about this.
Articles on Multicultural Education -- links to a number of good articles.
The Multicultural Pavilion -- a true supersite with extensive links, articles, reviews, teaching resources, and more.
The Multicultural Pavilion Teacher's Corner -- multicultural resources for teachers.
Social Studies Resources -- a site created by the Social Studies Task Force, a group of educators and others in Milwaukee who critiqued a social studies text used in Milwaukee public schools and argued successfully for use of a different text and of many supplemental multicultural materials to improve the teaching of history and social studies in the district -- includes a teacher exchange with lots of teaching ideas and resources.
Teaching A People's History: The Zinn Education Project -- grounded in the work of historian Howard Zinn, whose book, A People's History of the United States, provides stories and perspectives often left out of conventional history texts, this site provides lots of great resources of particular value to educators looking to enhance their teaching and curriculum.
The Homepage of Author/Historian James Loewen -- good information about the teaching of U.S. history and Loewen's numerous and award winning books and research, including discussion of and excerpts from: Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your High School History Textbook Got Wrong; Teaching What Really Happened; Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong; Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism; and more.
Lesson Plans for the Ithaca City School District's Participation in an MLK "Community Build" Project -- lesson plans developed by educators in Ithaca, NY as part of a "community read and dialogue" project using Martin Luther King, Jr.'s last book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? Major themes in the book are the topics of instruction and investigation.
Whiteness Studies and the Multicultural Literature Classroom -- an article about the value of including whiteness studies in a multicultural approach to literature.
Presenting Another Culture -- guidelines for children's authors that also relate very well to the work of educators and how they present cultures other than their own to their students -- includes numerous examples of relevant cultural differences and perspectives important for teachers to consider.
EdChange -- An excellent site that supports "professional development, scholarship, and activism for diversity, social justice, and community growth." -- lots of good resrouces.
Culturally Responsive Teaching -- a number of good links about how to teach diverse learners effectively.
An Introduction to Culturally Responsive Pedagogy -- a short video about culturally responsive pedagogy and its rationale, theory and practice -- includes interview clip with Geneva Gay, Jackie Jordan Irvine, and Kris Guttierez.
Curriculum Units by the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute -- lots of great lesson plans and teaching ideas in many disciplines.
Teaching Diverse Learners -- an excellent resource at Brown University -- includes practical teaching strategies and discussion of theory and policy issues.
Considerations in Teaching Culturally Diverse Children -- another good background/overview essay.
A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We Losing the Dream? -- a research report of the Harvard Civil Rights Project about the value of cultural diversity in K-16 education.
The Impact of Racial and Ethnic Diversity on Educational Outcomes -- another report by the Harvard Civil Rights Project about the benefits of diversity in education.
Multicultural Education -- a site with very good links about a variety of topics related to both the theory and practice of multicultural education.
Educating All Our Students: Improving Education for Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds -- a very good discussion of the relevance of culture to the effective education of diverse youth.
Multiculturalism: Some Principles and Issues -- an overview of the various dynamics of multicultural education and other unresolved issues.
The Challenge of Intersecting Identities in American Society: Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Nation -- an extensive and excellent collection of curricular units, for different disciplines, by teachers in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
The Timeline Project -- a critically reflective history project that presents timelines about race relations and gender issues in the U.S. School ID = diversity and password = inspires.
Resources for Affirming Diversity -- a web page by Barry Derfel of the Ithaca School District Office of Staff Development -- some great links and resources for educators.
Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education -- an electronic magazine dealing with issues of Multicultural Education. Each issue has a different theme on how to relate different areas to multicultural education.
Reading Across Cultures -- a great collection of curricular unit plans created by teachers in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Learning to Respect Differences Through Cultural Diversity in Literature Teaching Acceptance -- a curricular unit plan by a teacher in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Teaching Tolerance -- a national education project and magazine dedicated to helping teachers foster equity, respect, and understanding in the classroom and beyond -- a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center -- includes classroom activities and resources and much more -- lots of free teaching materials for educators.
Teaching for Change -- an excellent source for multicultural teaching materials.
American Textbook Council -- the American Textbook Council provides many articles throughout their website regarding social studies and civic education.
National Center for Education Statistics -- an up-to date source for education information.
Mixed Needs of Immigrants Pose Challenges for Schools -- an article in Education Week, Sept. 27, 2000.
Beyond Black and White -- an article in Education Week, Oct. 18, 2000.
Multicultural Readings and Resources -- a good bibliography of resources, broken into different categories, including some that pertain to different disciplines -- by Donna Ford.
Successful K-12 Programs -- an annotated list of model programs that achieve success with diverse youth through culturally responsive teaching and good supports achieveing academic excellence.
Closing the Achievement Gap -- information from the Colorado Department of Education about multicultural education and the importance of addressing the achievement gap.
New Horizons for Learning -- lots of articles and links on a range of important topics in education.
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: Teaching about Race and Ethnicity: A Message of Despair of a Message of Hope? -- an online journal that examines the overwhelming amount of emphasis we place on teaching students about structures of domination and the lack of attention we give to teaching about the process of resistance and change.
Yahoo Culture Site -- links to sites about many different cultural groups.
Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education -- includes articles and reviews on important themes and issues in multicultural education.
National Association of Multicultural Education (NAME) -- website for this important national organization.
Immigrant Education Issues -- extensive resources relevant to educating immigrant students.
Southern Poverty Law Center -- the SPLC tracks hate groups and publishes a magazine for educators to help them address issues of hate and bias.
CivilRights.org -- a progressive coalition for equal opportunity and justice.
The Multicultural Review -- a good journal.
ColorLines -- an excellent magazine about issues of race, ethnicity, and racism.
Mix It Up -- a national/international project for teens, by Teaching for Tolerance, that creates a framework and mechanism for breaking different forms of segregation and intolerance.
Webster Groves Writing Project-- a successful multicultural approach to the teaching of writing -- this program has been written about in a number of books and articles about effective use of culture in designing and delivering instruction.
Writing for Change: Raising Awareness of Difference, Power and Discrimination -- good lesson plan ideas that engage students in a critical analysis of the use of language and media around issues of diversity.
Dig Deeper: Test Yourself for Hidden Bias-- created by psychologists at Yale University and the University of Washington, this collection of Implicit Association Tests (IAT) measures unconscious bias -- try it out and reflect.
Ethnomathematics -- extensive resources for the multicultural study of mathematics -- a very interesting site demonstrating the importance of including culture in the study and teaching of math.
Multicultural Perspectives in Mathematics Education -- a set of good resources developed, maintained, and made available by the University of Georgia Department of Mathematics Education.
Multicultural Approaches in Math and Science -- a good collection of articles.
A Homepage for New (and Not So New) Math Teachers -- a great website, with multicultural resources, by a teacher in Ithaca, NY.
Ethnomathematics: A Key for Mathematics Education -- good ideas, links, and resources, including mathematic analysis of traditional games.
A Comparison of the Final Grades of Students in Intermediate Algebra Taught With and Without Ethnomathematical Pedagogy -- research showing that multicultural math improves achievement.
The Algebra Project -- an exceptional math education program, now nationally recognized, created by Civil Rights activist and Harvard Ph.D., Bob Moses -- a creative and culturally responsive approach to teaching African American and other youth algebra -- algebra is a major gatekeeping discipline and course that often determines whether youth are placed on the college prep path -- the program works, and the website includes lesson ideas and other useful information.
Diversity in Biology -- a report presenting information about women and people of color who have made significant contributions to the field of biology.
Multicultural Resources for Physical Education -- some good resources and links.
Germantown Academy's Multicultural Games Site -- a great resource about games of many cultures -- includes teaching and student research ideas.
Multicultural Games -- links to informational sites about games from all over the world.
National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media -- website about racist American Indian mascots in sport.
Multicultural Health Education -- an article written about health education in Canada with relevance beyond that country.
Voices from the Gaps -- a great website about "women writers of color" -- good bios and links.
Just Think -- an interesting media production program for youth that teaches critical media literacy and other important skills.
Educators Use Rap as a Teaching Tool -- a radio broadcast about teachers who are using hip-hop effectively to make connections between contemporary music/poetry and the classics -- scroll to the bottom of the page, click and listen.
Hip Hop Education -- an article about Martha Diaz and her efforts to combine hip hop and filmmaking to teach reading, writing, and more.
H2Ed -- the website of this innovative program and organization that "connects educators, social workers, parents, and youth to use Hip-Hop culture as an effective way to inform, educate, and activate youth" -- started by Marth Diaz and Tricia Wing -- soon they will have lesson plans and more at this website.
BLK JKS: World Music With Teeth -- a radio segment about a South African rock band (pronounced Black Jacks) that "specializes in a shadowy, foreboding style of progressive rock that's distinctly African. Beneath fantastic tangles of electric guitar are superheated beats — rhythms that have roots in the "township jive" dance music that erupted in South Africa in the 1970s." Great stuff!! Check it out!!
Shattering the Silences -- a documentary that explores issues of faculty diversity in American higher education in the mid-1990s, focusing on the experiences of eight minority scholars in the humanities and social sciences at a wide range of institutions. The program illustrates ways in which teaching and research by these scholars -- who are Asian-American, African-American, Native American, and Latino -- affects students, university communities, and the academic disciplines in which they work, and the triumphs and disappointments they encounter in their personal lives and academic careers.
Peace Corps Web Site -- focuses on issues of culture globally and provides multicultural lesson plans for teachers at different grade levels.
Prep for Prep -- a successful program that demonstrates the fundamental power and value of high expectations and real opportunity in education.
iEARN (International Education and Resource Network) -- a site that provides educators with opportunities to link their students to students in other parts of the world, through the internet, to conduct research and engage in interesting projects. Projects for every discipline and age.
The Kennedy Center: America, A Home for Every Culture -- this website has lesson plans for 3-4th graders. It gives students the opportunity to explore how various cultures have contributed to making the United States the unique and diverse country that it is today.
Cultural Aspects of Spanish in America -- a resourceful website that's designed for Spanish teachers or students in a Spanish class and discusses the cultural aspects of Spanish in America.
The Miller Early Childhood Initiative -- a great website that fosters multiculturalism and encourages children to respect and embrace differences.
In Time Multicultural Education - This website is aimed at assisting educators in addressing multicultural issues within the classroom in hopes of decreasing inequalities based on race, class, ethnicity, and gender.
Education of Minority Children - This article written by Thomas Sowell is highlights the past successes of black public schools and is a reminder of what can be achieved despite the societal hardships endured by minorities.
Critical Multicultural Pavilion - This website provides information about the importance of multicultural education and includes and tips for educators who wish to include culturally responsive teaching methods in their classrooms.
Education and Racial Inequality - This report offers information regarding the education of minority students, focusing on the achievement disparities that exist based on race and ethnicity.
Status and Trends in Education - This 2010 report focuses on disparities in educational achievement, highlighting differences in race, living arrangement, poverty, parental education and other factors that play a role in a child's academic standing.
National Multicultural Institute -- This website provides resources about multiculturalism, and has training resources for purchase.
The Other War, Against Intolerance -- This article by the Economic Policy Institute describes stories of intolerance experience by a number of people after 9/11.
Scholarship Opportunities for Minority Students:
- Making College Affordable -- A comprehensive guide that delivers an overview of the scholarship-seeking process for minority students.
- Financial Aid for Hispanic Students to Attend School -- A great resource for accessing scholarships, grants, and programs for First Generation, Migrant, and Undocumented Hispanic students.
- Scholarships for Native American Students -- A great resource for accessing grants, scholarships, fellowships, and other financial aid opportunities for Native American students. This article also details challenges students may face and provides a list of outreach organizations that can assist in the student's efforts to access higher education.
Multicultural and Diversity Guide for Students -- Geared toward students looking into potential colleges and universities, this article emphasizes the importance of inclusivity and representation on campus for the individual student, as well as the campus culture, offering "expert advice" and methods to prepare for the transition into higher education.
Teaching Multicultural Students -- This webpage explains what multicultural education is and the many facets of multiple cultures in the classroom, along with resources for both teachers and parents.
Some Good Books and Articles
Adams, M., Bell, L. & Griffin, P. (Ed.) 1997. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook. Routledge.
Allen, J. 2010. Literacy in the Welcoming Classroom: Creating Family School Partnerships That Support Student Learning. Teachers College Press.
Anderson, W. and Campbell P. 1996. Multicultural Perspectives in Music Education. Second Edition, Virginia: Music Educators National Conference.
Anderson, W., and Moore, M. 1998. Making Connections: Multicultural Music and the National Standards. Virginia: Music Educators National Conference.
Banks, J. & Banks, C. 2010. Multicultural Education, Perspectives and Issues. John Wiley &Sons.
Barbarash, L. 1997. Multicultural Games. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bigelow, B. et al., 1994. Rethinking Our Classrooms: Teaching for Equity and Justice. Rethinking Schools Publications.
Bigelow, B. et al., 2001. Rethining Our Classrooms, Volume 2. Rethinking Schools Publications.
Bigelow, B. & Peterson, B. (Ed.) 1998. Rethinking Columbus: The Next 500 Years. Rethinking Schools Publications.
Cahnmann-Taylor, M. 2010. Teachers Act Up! Creating Multicultural Learning Communities Through Theatre. Teachers College Press.
Christensen, L. 2000. Reading, Writing, and Rising Up: Teaching About Social Justice and the Power of the Written Word. Rethinking Schools Publications.
Copple, C., ed. 2003. A World of Difference: Readings on Teaching Young Children in a Diverse Society. Washington, DC: NAEYC
Cortes, C. 2000. The Children are Watching: How the Media Teach about Diversity. Teachers College Press.
Cummins, J. & Sayers, D. 1995. Brave New Schools: Challenging Cultural Illiteracy through Global Learning Networks. St. Martin's Press.
Davidman, L. & Davidman, P. 1994. Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective: A Practical Guide. Longman.
Davis, J. (2007). Making a Difference: How Teachers Can Positively Affect Racial Identity and Acceptance in America. Social Studies Journal p. 209-214.
Delpit, L. 1995. Other People's Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. The New Press.
Derman-Sparks, L. & Ramsey, P. 2011. What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families. Teachers College Press.
Dilg, M. 2011. Our Worlds in Our Words: Exploring Race, Class, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Multicultural Classrooms. Teachers College Press.
Dunn, R. & Griggs. 1998. Multiculturalism and Learning Style: Teaching and Counseling Adolescents. Praeger.
Finkelstein, B . & Eder, E. 1998. Hidden Messages: Instructional Materials for Investigating Culture. International Press, Inc.
Fleming, S. Mitchell, M. Gorecki, J. Coleman, M. 1999. Students Change and So Do Good Programs: Addressing the Interests of Multicultural Secondary Students. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, February 70(2): 79.
Ford, C. 1994. We Can Get Along, 50 Steps You Can Take to Help End Racism. New York: Dell.
Frosch, M. (Ed.) 1994. Coming of Age in America: A Multicultural Anthology. The New Press.
Gay, G. 2001. Culturally Responsive Teaching. Teachers College Press.
Gibson, M. 1988. Accommodation without Assimilation. Cornell University Press.
Gibson, M. 1995. Promoting Additive Acculturaltion in Schools. Multicultural Education, Fall.
Gutstein, E. 2006. Reading and Writing the World with Mathematics: Toward a Pedagogy for Social Justice. Routledge.
Gutstein, E. & Peterson, B. (Eds.) 2005. Rethinking Mathematics: Teaching Social Justice by the Numbers. Rethinking Schools.
Hall, N. S. 1999. Creative Resources for the Anti-Bias Classroom. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.
Hanley, M. 1999. Multicultural Empowerment in Middle School Social Studies through Drama Pedagogy. The Clearing House, 72(6): 364-372.
Hernandez, H. 2001. Multicultural Education: A Teacher's Guide to Linking Context, Process, and Content. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Herrera, S. 2010. Biography-Driven Culturally Responsive Teaching. Teachers College Press.
Hess, D. 2009. Controversy in the Classroom: The Democratic Power of Discussion. Routledge.
Hollins, E., King, J., & Hayman, W. 1994. Teaching Diverse Populations: Formulating a Knowledge Base. SUNY Press.
Howard, G. 1999. We Can't Teach What We Don't Know. Teachers College Press.
Igoa, C. 1995. The Inner World of the Immigrant Child. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Irvine, J. & Armento, B. 2001. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Lesson Planning for Elementary and Middle Grades. McGraw Hill.
King, J. et al., (Eds.) 1997. Preparing Teachers for Cultural Diversity. Teachers College Press.
Larkin, J. (Ed.) 1995. Developing Multicultural Teacher Education Curricula. SUNY Press.
Lee, E., Menkert, D., & Okazawa-Rey, M. 1998. Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development. Network of Educators on the Americas.
Loewen, J. 1995. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. Simon & Schuster.
Loewen, J. 1999. Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. The New Press.
Loewen, J. 2009. Teaching What Really Happened: How to Avoid the Tyranny of Textbooks and Get Students Excited about Doing History. Teachers College Press.
Lynch, E.& Hanson, M. (Eds.) 1998. Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working with Children and Their Families. Paul H. Brooks.
Marriott, D. (2003). Ending the Silence. Phi Delta Kappan. p. 496-501.
Moulder, F.V. 1997. Teaching about Race and Ethnicity: A Message of Despair or a Message of Hope? Teaching Sociology, Vol. 25, No.2: 120-127.
Nasir, N. & Cobb, P. 2006. Improving Access to Mathematics: Diversity and Equity in the Classroom. Teachers College Press.
Nieto, S. 1996. Affirming Diversity: The Sociopolitical Context of Multicultural Education. Longman
Nieto, S. 1999. The Light In Their Eyes: Creating Multicultural Learning Communities. Teachers College Press.
Obidah, J. & Teel, K. 2001. Because of the Kids: Facing Racial and Cultural Differences in Schools. Teachers College Press.
Oldenburg, A. 2000. Celebrate Diversity! Instructor, 110(1): 46.
Perry, T. & Fraser, J. (Ed.). 1993. Freedom's Plow: Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom. Routledge.
Plaut, S. (Ed.) 2009. The Right to Literacy in Secondary Schools: Creating a Culture of Thinking. Teachers College Press.
Rios, F. (Ed.) 1996. Teacher Thinking in Cultural Contexts. SUNY Press.
Sacks, P. 2007. Tearing Down the Gates:Confronting the Class Divide in American Education. U of California Press.
Schniedewind, N. and Davidson, E. 1998.
Open Minds to Equality: A Sourcebook of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity. Alyn and Bacon.
Schultz, K. 2003. Listening: A Framework for Teaching Across Differences. Teachers College Press.
Sleeter, C. (Ed.) 1991. Empowerment through Multicultural Education. SUNY Press.
Sleeter, C. 1996. Multicultural Education as Social Activism. SUNY Press.
Stephen, W. 1999. Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools. Teachers College Press.
Takaki, R. 1993. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Little Brown.
Tiedt, P. and Tiedt, I. 1995. Multicultural Teaching: A Handbook of Activities, Information, and Resources. Allyn and Bacon.
Trumbell, E ., Rothstein-Fisch, C ., Greenfield, P . & Quiroz, B. 2001. Bridging Cultures between Home and School: A Guide for Teachers. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Publishers.
Wade, R. 2007. Social Studies for Social Justice: Teaching Strategies for the Elementary Classroom. Teachers College Press.
Zaslavsky, C. 1996. The Multicultural Math Classroom: Bringing in the World. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Zinn, H. 1997. A People's History of the United States: Teaching Edition. The New Press.
Some Videos & Films
School Colors, 1994 -- a documentary about a diverse public high school in Berkely, CA, and the divisions and tensions associated with diversity there.
The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America, 1995 -- a documentary history of racism and bigotry in the U.S. -- available from Teaching Tolerance (http://www.splcenter.org/teachingtolerance/tt-index.html)
Shattering the Silences, 1997 -- a documentary that explores issues of faculty diversity in American higher education, focusing on the experiences of eight minority scholars and the triumphs and disappointments they encounter in their personal lives and academic careers.
The Geneseo Migrant Center -- website offers access to a multitude of resources for educators about information about migrant workers. There is also a list of scholarship opportunities for migrant students and a comprehensive list of services, including ESL and GED opportunities.
National PASS Center - The National Pass Center was set up in 1997 to serve as a national clearing house where secondary students can take courses to help them earn secondary school credits.
Meeting the Educational Needs of Migrant Students – This article outlines some of the challenges faced by migrant students.
Migrant students: What we need to know to help them succeed -- article on migrant students, barriers to their achievement, programs designed to help this population, and success strategies. A comprehensive list of resources that could be helpful to teachers who want to educate themselves about this demographic.
Invisible Children: A Portrait of Migrant Education in the United States -- This report, published in 1992 by the National Commission of Migrant Education, explains the challenges that migrant children face in regards to education but how some school districts are working hard to help these students achieve.