Judaism (340-20300 & 344-20300)
Mishnah Shabbat 7:2
The chief categories of acts of labor [prohibited on the Sabbath] are forty less one:
Mishnah Shabbat 12:1
One who buildshow much does
he build so as to be liable (to punishment for violating the prohibition)?
One who builds in any measure at all.
One who hews stone, hits with a hammer or adze, or boresin any measure at all is liable.
This is the governing principle: Whoever on the Sabbath performs a forbidden act of labor and [the result of] his act of labor endures is liable.
One who plough in any measure whatsoever,
One who weeds, one who cuts off dead leaves, and one who prunes, in any measure whatsoever, is liable.
One who gathers branches of wood: if to improve the fieldin any measure at all; if for a firea measure of wood sufficient to cook a small eggis liable.
One who gathers herbs, if it is to improve the fieldin any measure at all; if it is for cattle to eatin the measure of a lambs mouthful, is liable.
One who writes two letters, whether with the right hand or with the left, whether the same letter or two different letters, whether with different pigments, in any alphabetis liable.
One who writes two letters at one time, inadvertently, is liable.
If one wrote with ink, caustic, red dye, gum, or copperas, or with anything that leaves a mark, on two walls forming a corner, or on two leaves of a tablet, which are read with one anotheris liable.
One who writes on his flesh is liable. One who scratches a mark on his fleshRabbi Eliezer declares him liable to a sin offering [he must bring a sacrifice in the Temple to atone for his sin], while Rabbi Joshua declares him exempt.
If one wrote with fluids, fruit juice, dirt from the street, writers sand, or with anything that does not leave a lasting mark, he is exempt (from punishment).
If one wrote with the back of his hand, with his foot, mouth, or elbow; if he wrote one letter alongside a letter already written; if he wrote a letter on top of a letter [already written]; . . . if he wrote one on the ground and one on the beam; if he wrote two letters on the two walls of the house, on the two sides of a leaf of paper, so that they cannot be read with one another, he is exempt.
This page maintained
by: Rebecca Lesses
Last revised January 12, 2006