Interpreting SPSS Output


Frequency Tables:

  1. The first box tells how many records contain valid data for what was entered. In the Valid row, the number tells how many records contain complete data. The missing category tells how many records have missing or invalid data. If there is a number greater than zero in the missing section, the missing data should be located and entered into the data set.
  2. The second box of data indicates the frequency distributions of the data. There are five columns:
    1. First column indicates the values of the variables in a sorted order. There is one row for each value and two additional rows for Total and Missing data at the bottom of the output.
    2. The second column gives the frequency of each value.
    3. The third column indicates the percentage of records that hold that value.
    4. The fourth column gives the percentage of valid data with that value (excludes missing data fields)
    5. The fifth column gives a cumulative percentage, which includes scores that are equal to, or smaller than the current value.


Central Tendency for Frequency Table:


Output for ONLY Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation:




Independent Samples T-test: