The Ustasha and The Roman Catholic Church

Nathan Fasulo


            When people hear the words ‘holocaust’ and ‘genocide,’ their minds begin to form black and white images of Auschwitz, emaciated Jews wearing striped prison clothes, and, of course, the sadistic face of Adolf Hitler and his SS cohorts.  However, another holocaust occurred during World War II that has managed to elude the eyes of the public.  When the Nazis defeated Yugoslavia in 1941, they handed power over to the Ustasha, a radical group of Croatian fascists.  Upon receiving power, the Ustasha implemented policies that called for the persecution and murder of Orthodox Serbs, Jews, and anyone against the Ustasha state.  By the end of the war, nearly one million people were murdered, with the Orthodox Serbs being the most numerous.  Not surprisingly, Nazi Germany supported the Ustasha in its quest to ethnically and religiously cleanse the Balkans of Jews, anti-Fascists, Orthodox Serbs, and all other non-Catholics.  However, to the amazement and disbelief of many, the Ustasha was also supported by the Roman Catholic Church.  The leading high-ranking clergymen ignored the atrocities, while many monks and priests actually participated in them.[1]

            The thought of the Roman Catholic Church knowing of, encouraging, and even participating in a holocaust would be utter blasphemy to over 800 million Roman Catholics.  To Catholics, the Pope is believed to be the infallible Vicar of Christ, and the Roman Catholic Church to be the only means of obtaining salvation.  Most of these faithful followers simply do not know the history of their Church, whereas others deny that the Vatican has ever organized or been involved in any atrocities altogether.  It is often said that the atrocities of the Catholic Church are a thing of the distant past, which could never happen in a modern Catholic society.  However, the genocide committed by the Ustasha occurred as recently as the 1940s, and was organized and carried out by many Catholic clergymen in Ustasha uniforms.  It is no laughing matter to charge this kind of evil and iniquity to such a well-respected and powerful institution as the Roman Catholic Church.  When doing so, one must address simple questions.  Questions such as: Why would the Catholic Church want to kill the non-Catholics in Croatia?  How could a seemingly charitable and loving Church possibly be linked to or support Hitler and the Ustasha?  And also, what did the Pope do and say during the holocaust of the Serbs?  These are fair questions, and, unfortunately, their answers in no way lead one to believe that the Church of Rome was innocent during this time, and that she did everything in her power to help her fellow man.

            To understand the role of the Roman Catholic Church throughout history, one must view the Pope not merely as a religious leader, but also as a political and diplomatic entity, much like the head of a country.  The Vatican must also be viewed as not only the center of the Roman Catholic Church, but also as the headquarters where decisions of diplomacy are made that affect the whole world.  The Roman Catholic Church must be viewed as a nation with millions of citizens spanning the globe who have two loyalties: one to their native land, and one to the Vatican.  Throughout history the Pope has called on Catholics to remain loyal to the Church into which they were baptized.  When one views the Vatican in this light, her relationship and actions toward such sinister groups as the Nazis and Ustasha do not seem so far fetched.  After all, it was not long ago when the most powerful kings of the earth begged for the blessing of the Vicar of Christ, and knelt at his feet in fear and subjugation.[2]  We must also never forget the times when the army of the Vatican was one of the most feared in all of Europe, fighting and winning wars under the Papal flag and, ironically, doing so in the name of Christ.  Granted, the power and influence of the Vatican has substantially decreased since the Middle Ages, but her desire and will to rule over and control the kings and nations of the earth has not.  Her role throughout the 20th Century, although not as dominant and forthright as in previous centuries, is nonetheless present, and evident in the Ustasha.

             The outcome of World War I did not bode well for the Vatican.  Germany and Austria-Hungary, both pro-Catholic countries, lost land and were broken up into smaller states.  Their breakup meant the formation of countries in which Catholics would be a minority and the Church would lose its dominant position.[3]  American President Woodrow Wilson was determined to grant independence to the Southern Slavs, who for centuries had rejected the yoke of Rome.  The result was the birth of the independent states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.  Suddenly, the Roman Catholic Croatians found themselves a minority in a new country controlled by the Eastern Orthodox Church.  The Vatican was searching for a way to regain power, and needed an ally that also dreaded the Church’s two main enemies: the godless Soviets and the rival Orthodox Church.[4]

The Vatican’s concordats with Mussolini and Hitler were consistent with her desire to keep the power she had, and regain that which she had recently lost.  The chief enemy of the Vatican was the Soviet Union, whose aggressive atheism and ruthless destruction of churches made it an uncompromising foe.  Capitalist democracies, with their fondness for freedom of conscience, religion, and the press, were incompatible with the Vatican’s desire to have strong control and link church and state.  Therefore, Fascism seemed to offer the best hope of uniting Catholic Europe as a safeguard against the rising red tide of world Communism.  Both Mussolini and Hitler were Catholics and were willing to work with the Catholic Church.  Although it was not a marriage made in heaven, both sides saw benefits in their cooperation.  The Fascists would get the support of the Catholic people, and the Catholic Church would be allowed her usual power as long as she did not pose a threat to the Fascist regimes.  The 1929 concordat with Mussolini and the 1933 concordat with Hitler were the results of skillful diplomacy by Vatican Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, who eventually became Pope Pius XII just before World War II. [5]  Some say these concordats were made in goodwill and naïveté, and that it was impossible for the Catholic Church to have known what its fascist allies would do.  Unfortunately, this is far from the truth.

The fact that the Vatican knew of Hitler’s plans to exterminate the Jews cannot be debated.  Had no one read Mein Kampf?  Nearly everyone in Europe was familiar with Hitler’s book and knew of his diabolical plot to persecute and kill Jews.  In spite of this, the Catholic Church was cautious not to upset the Nazis.  In a journal with the Vatican’s seal of the Imprimatur, Dr. Haeuser called the Jews “Germany’s cross, a people disowned by God and under their own curse carried much of the blame for Germany having lost the Great War.”  In another journal Father Senn called Hitler “the tool of God, called upon to overcome Judaism,” and stated that Fascism provided “the last big opportunity to throw off the Jewish Yoke.”[6]  There was also the more famous Father Charles Coughlin in the U.S., who littered the radio waves with his anti-Semitic propaganda.[7]  None of these Catholics were excommunicated by the Church, much less reprimanded.  Also, four weeks before the Vatican signed her concordat with the Nazis, Hitler began his program of boycotts against the Jews saying “I believe that I act today in unison with the Almighty Creator’s intention.  By fighting the Jews I do battle for the Lord.” [8]  This statement also went unchallenged by the Catholic Church.  It is clear that many powerful Catholics supported Hitler in his plot to destroy Jews, and were in no way silenced by the Vatican.  The Vatican sternly banned other books, but it never put Mein Kampf or the poisonous anti-Semitic works of numerous Church leaders on its Index of forbidden readings.[9]

            In an attempt to regain power in the Balkans and destroy the Orthodox Church, in the 1920s the Vatican cooperated with a group of White Russians who fled Soviet Russia and planned to return and defeat the Bolsheviks.  This group became known as the Intermarium - an international underground committee to liberate and unite the peoples of the ‘Intermare’ region bounded by the Baltic, Black, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas.[10]  This buffer zone would theoretically seal off the Soviet Communists in the East from a newly united Catholic Europe.  By the 1930s, the Intermarium was under the leadership of the vicious and sadistic Anté Pavelic, and was clearly a Fascist group involved in terrorism throughout Europe.  In partnership with Croatian Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac, Pavelic was personally responsible for the assassination of Yugoslavian King Alexander and Croat Peasant Party leader Stjepan Radić in 1928.  Many believe Radić was silenced because he continually warned against letting the Catholic Church gain too much power.  Pavelic was given asylum in Italy by Mussolini to escape the Yugoslavian courts.  Under Pavelic’s leadership, the pro-Catholic, fascist Ustasha was formed.  Pavelic described a good Ustasha as one who could “use a knife to cut a child from the womb of its mother.”[11]  The Ustasha, which means “to rise up,” were responsible for murders, bombings in public places, blackmail, threats, and other acts of terror aimed at dismantling peace and order in Yugoslavia and the formation of an independent Catholic Croatian state.  However, in order to obtain this Catholic Croatian state the Ustasha would have to increase in power and win over the hearts and minds of the people.[12]

            Anté Pavelic and the Ustasha used propaganda much like Dr. Joseph Goebbles did in Nazi Germany.  The Croatian people were repeatedly told how the solution to their problems lay in the death and deportation of the Jews and Orthodox Serbs.  In Hitler’s Pope, John Cornwell explains the Ustasha’s motives and message:

The historical legacy that underpinned the formation of the Independent State of Croatia was a combination of ancient loyalties to the papacy going back thirteen hundred years, and a sense of burning resentment against the Serbs for past and present injustices.  The Serbs were guilty, so the Croats perceived it, of favoring the Orthodox faith, encouraging schisms among Catholics, and systematically colonizing Catholic areas with Orthodox Serbs…At the same time, Jews in the region were condemned on the grounds of race, as well as their links with communism, freemasonry, and alleged encouragement of abortion.[13]

The Ustasha preached this message to its fellow Croatians, and offered a grisly solution: if it gained power it would kill half the Serbian population, and the other half would be converted to Catholicism or deported (those deported would be sent in boxcars to Hitler’s gas chambers).[14]  With the encouragement of the Catholic clergy, many joined the Ustasha movement.  To train his Ustasha killers, Pavelic set up camps in Hungary and Italy as early as 1929.  The Ustasha guerrillas were trained by the Italian Fascist militia, wore their black uniforms, marched with the goose-step, gave the Nazi salute, and eagerly awaited the day when they would “liberate” their country from the Orthodox Serbs and Jews.  However, the Ustasha could not break away from Yugoslavia alone; it was merely a terrorist organization and not that powerful.  Its dream became a reality when Hitler, a fellow Catholic-friendly Fascist, began his blitz through Europe.[15]

            When Mussolini failed to defeat the Greeks, Hitler quickly came to his aid.  However, standing between Hitler and Greece was Yugoslavia, which the Nazis pressured to join the Axis powers.  Fearing a Nazi takeover, Yugoslavia signed a pact with Germany and Italy in Vienna on March 25, 1941.[16]  Only two days later, Serbian nationalists seized power in Belgrade and announced that Yugoslavia was siding with the Allied powers.  Unfortunately, their control only lasted a matter of days as Hitler invaded Yugoslavia on April 6th and took control of Zagreb four days later.[17]  The Ustasha was allowed to declare an independent Catholic Croatia, and Anté Pavelic was summoned out of hiding in Italy to lead the new Ustasha state.  The Ustasha overlapped ideologically with Nazism sufficiently enough to allow easy cooperation between Pavelic and Hitler.  The two met in the Fuhrer’s Alpine resort, the Berghof, and ironed out the arrangements that would govern relations between Germany and the puppet state of Croatia.[18]  These included Germany’s right to almost unlimited raw materials, special privileges for the Germans living in Croatia, and an “understanding” regarding Jews.[19]  It would not be long until Pavelic started to carry out this “understanding.”

            Only two weeks after the Nazis took control of Zagreb, Pavelic decreed that all publications in the Orthodox Serbian Cyrillic script were to be banned.  In May, anti-Semitic legislation was passed, defining Jews in racist terms, prohibiting Jews from marrying Aryans, and setting in motion the “Aryanization” of bureaucracies, professions, and Jewish capital.  The Ustasha also decreed that “all those who in any way offend the honor and vital interests of the Croatian people” would be subject to capital punishment. [20]  This vague law made it possible and encouraged the Ustasha to kill anyone it wished, chiefly the Jews and Orthodox Serbs, but also any other Gypsies, anti-Fascist Croats, and non-Catholics.  The genocide was underway, and unfortunately, this was only the beginning.

The Ustasha speedily set up a network of concentration camps, the best known being at Jasenovac.[21]  The Jews were the first to fall victim to the Ustasha.  After a matter of weeks, the Jews of Croatia were either murdered in their hometowns or promptly sent to the death camps.[22]  Fitzroy Maclean, Britain’s military liaison to the anti-Ustasha partisans, wrote of the atrocities in his report:

The whole of Bosnia ran with blood.  Bands of Ustasha roamed the countryside with knives, bludgeons, and machine guns; slaughtering Serbian men, women and little children, desecrating Serbian churches, murdering Serbian priests, laying waste Serbian villages, torturing, raping, burning, and drowning.  Killing became a cult, an obsession.[23]

Witnesses to the violence were common, mainly because the Ustasha was proud of its grotesque acts.  Pavelic even scoffed at Hitler for being too lenient in his treatment of the Jews and boasted that in Croatia he was nearing the completion of the “Jewish problem.”  There were however, many more Orthodox Serbs and Jews left to be killed.[24] 

Croatia’s population in the late 1920s was comprised of about 3 million Roman Catholics, nearly 2 million Serbians of Eastern Orthodox faith, a million Muslims, and about 50,000 Jews.    Most historians have estimated that during the reign of the Ustasha at least 487,000 Orthodox Serbs were murdered, 27,000 Gypsies, and approximately 30,000 of the Jews.[25]  In many cases, the brutality and evil that occurred in the Serbian genocide far outweighed that of the Nazis.  At Nevesinje, the Ustasha arrested a Serbian family and separated the mother and children from their father.  For seven days they were tortured by starvation and thirst.  Then the Ustasha brought the mother and children a roast, and told them to eat it.  After they finished eating, the Ustasha told them that they had just eaten the flesh of their father.[26]  Unbelievably, such horror was commonplace with the Ustasha, and to the surprise of the outside world, there was no leading Catholic voice openly condemning the Ustasha and the independent state of Croatia.

When the terrorist Ustasha took control, the Catholic Church and much of her clergy were overwhelmingly supportive, regardless of the Ustasha’s pledges to deport and kill non-Catholics.  Two investigators to the Ustasha arrival into Zagreb wrote that Archbishop Stepinac immediately “offered his congratulations to Pavelic” and held a banquet to celebrate the founding of the new Ustasha state.[27]  He also ordered the proclamation of the independent state to be delivered from all pulpits of the Catholic Church in Croatia on Easter Sunday, and arranged to have Pavelic received by Pope Pius XII in Rome.  As soon as Pavelic took power, Archbishop Stepinac issued a Pastoral Letter ordering the Croatian clergy to support the new Ustasha state.[28]  The Archbishop wrote:

God, who directs the destiny of nations and controls the hearts of Kings, has given us Anté Pavelic and moved the leader of a friendly and allied people, Adolf Hitler, to use his victorious troops to disperse our oppressors…Glory be to God, our gratitude to Adolf Hitler and loyalty to our Poglavnik, Anté Pavelic.[29]

Croatian church leaders such as Stepinac favored an alliance with the Ustasha because they were anti-Communists, Roman Catholics, and might very well succeed in reconverting the 200,000 souls who had switched their allegiance from Roman Catholic to Serbian Orthodox since the end of World War I.[30]  Archbishop Stepinac was not the only Roman Catholic clergyman who outspokenly supported the Nazis and Ustasha.  Shortly after the Ustasha took control, the Croatian Catholic Minister of Worship stated, “The Ustasha movement is based on religion.  All our work rests on our loyalty to religion an the Catholic Church….  We will kill some Serbians, deport others, and the rest will be compelled to embrace the Roman Catholic religion.”[31]  His horrid prediction was relentlessly and utterly fulfilled in the coming years.

Priests and monks, usually Franciscans, took a leading part in the massacres, and left a multitude of photographs proving their involvement.[32]  In order to impress Pavelic, and be awarded medals or singled out for “heroism,” the killers would frequently take pictures with their dead or dying victims.[33]  Captured photographs show Ustasha members beheading a Serb with an axe, driving a saw through the neck of another, and carrying the head of a Serbian Orthodox priest through the streets of Zagreb.  In all of them, the Ustasha are smiling and crowding into the picture, as if to prove they had a role in the atrocity.[34]  Some Ustasha collected the eyes of the Serbs they had killed, sending them to Pavelic for his inspection, or proudly displaying them and other human organs in the cafes of Zagreb.[35]

The Franciscan Monk Miroslav Filipovic was the commandant at Jasenovac, the most infamous of the Ustasha death camps.[36]  He is one of many who have proudly been photographed as a member of the Ustasha killing squads.  On the night of August 29, 1942, commandant Filipovic gave orders for the execution of all the prisoners at Jasenovac.  Bets were made as to who could kill the largest number of inmates.  Peter Brzica cut the throats of 1,360 prisoners with an especially sharp butcher’s knife.  Having been proclaimed the winner of the competition, he was elected “King of the Cutthroats.”  A gold watch, a roasted pig, and wine were his rewards.  During Filipovic’s two years as the commandant of Jasenovac, no less than 100,000 people were murdered, mostly Serbian Orthodox.[37]

Father Bozidar Bralow, known for the machine gun that was his constant companion, was accused of performing a dance around the bodies of 180 massacred Serbs at Alipasin-Most.  In September of 1941, an Italian reporter wrote of a Franciscan he had witnessed south of Banja Luka urging on a band of Ustasha with his crucifix.[38]  Individual Franciscans committed murder, set fire to homes, sacked villages, and laid waste the countryside as the heads of the Ustasha killing squads.  They also used the manner in which a person gave the sign of the cross as a way of telling if they were of Orthodox background.  Not only did priests and monks contribute and organize many of the killings, they also performed many forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Roman Catholicism.[39]

Known as the “Father Confessor,” Archbishop Stepinac headed the committee that was responsible for the forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Roman Catholicism.  Stepinac was also the Supreme Military Apostolic Vicar of the Ustasha Army, which hunted down and slaughtered those who refused to convert to the Church of Rome.[40]  One bishop after another endorsed the promotion of conversions.  The bishops’ failure to disassociate themselves from the regime, to denounced it, or to excommunicate Pavelic and the Franciscan murderers, was due to their reluctance of losing the opportunity to build a Catholic power base in the Balkans.[41] 

On May 14th 1941, at a place called Glina, hundreds of Serbs were brought to a church to attend a mandatory service of thanksgiving for the constitution of the new Ustasha state.  Once the Serbs were inside the building, a squad of Ustasha entered with axes and knives.  They asked the Serbs to show their certificates proving they had converted to Roman Catholicism.  Only two had the required documents, and were released.  Because the others had not converted to Catholicism, the doors of the church were locked and they were butchered by the Ustasha with axes and knives.[42] 

On April 28, the Ustasha raided six villages in the Bjelovar district and took 250 men, including a schoolteacher and an Orthodox priest.  Refusing to convert, the victims were forced to dig a ditch, then were bound with wire and buried alive.  A few days later, at a place called Otocac, the Ustasha rounded up 331 Serbs, including the local Orthodox priest and his son.  Again, the victims were forced to dig their own graves before being hacked to death with axes.  The perpetrators saved the priest and his boy until last.  The priest was forced to recite the prayers for the dying while the son was chopped to pieces.  The priest was then tortured, his hair and beard torn off, his eyes gouged out, and finally skinned alive.  The Italians and Nazis in Croatia were shocked by the grotesque acts of the Ustasha.  This brutality and savagery was not kept a secret by the proud Ustasha, and was heard over the radio, read in papers, and seen by many eyewitnesses.[43] 

The belief that the Pope’s silence was due to a lack of knowledge is unfounded and inaccurate.  Besides the printing of the atrocities in many of the local papers, and being told of them in his numerous meetings with Archbishop Stepinac, Pope Pius XII had his own BBC minister in the Vatican who faithfully reported to him all broadcasts.  There were frequent BBC broadcasts on the situation in Croatia, of which this on February 16, 1942 was typical: “the worst atrocities are being committed in the environs of the archbishop of Zagreb [Stepinac].  The blood of brothers is flowing in streams.  The Orthodox are being forcibly converted to Catholicism and we do not hear the archbishop’s voice preaching revolt.  Instead, it is reported that he is taking part in the Nazi and Fascist parades.”[44]  John Cornwell describes his feelings of Pope Pius XII after his extensive study in the Vatican’s archives:

Nearing the end of my research, I found myself in a state of moral shock.  The material I had gathered, taking the more extensive view of Pacelli’s life, amounted not to an exoneration but to a wider indictment.  Spanning Pacelli’s career from the beginning of the century, my research told the story of a bid for unprecedented papal power that by 1933 had drawn the Catholic Church into complicity with the darkest forces of the era…  Pacelli betrayed an undeniable antipathy toward the Jews, and his diplomacy in Germany in the 1930’s had resulted in the betrayal of Catholic political associations that might have challenged Hitler’s regime and thwarted the Final Solution.[45]

Cornwell was given access to crucial material in Rome after reassuring those in charge that he was on Pacelli’s side, and would clear his name from guilt.  As he stated, a review of the facts only added to the Pope’s guilt. 

The Pope also was made aware of the persecutions by Jewish organizations.  The World Jewish Congress and the Swiss Israelite community sent the Pope an aide-mémoire on March 17th, 1942, through Monsignor Filippe Bernadini, the apostolic nuncio in Berne.  The letter documented the organized persecution of Jews in Germany, France, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, and Croatia.  The Jews pleaded with the Pope to use his influence to halt their persecution in the Catholic countries.  In October of 1998, Gerhard Riegner, a surviving signatory of the letter, revealed in his published memoirs, Ne Jamais Désespérer, that the Vatican had excluded it from the eleven volumes of released wartime documents.  The Vatican has still failed to come clean as of what it knew of the letter and of the Croatian atrocities.[46]

Because of the inability of the Pope and the Catholic Church to tell the full story, we will never know their complete role in the holocausts of World War II.  It must be said, however, that it would be irresponsible and unfair to condemn all Catholics because of the actions of a few extremists.  Without a doubt, many Catholics truly acted Christ-like by helping their neighbors in their time of need.  However, this number was much too small, especially among the more powerful Catholics such as the Franciscans, the Jesuits, the clergy, the bishops (Stepinac), and, most importantly, “His Holiness” Pope Pius XII.  Amid all questions, cover-ups, and misleading information, we do know a number of things.  We know that Pius and Pavelic did not condemn the Ustasha or Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies, and we know that the Pope did not attempt to halt the killings, the forced conversions, or the stealing of Orthodox property.  We also know that Pope Pius XII later elevated Stepinac to the position of cardinal.[47]  Pavelic was also beatified by Pope John Paul II at the Vatican in 1998, even though his crimes were widely known.[48]  In the Vatican’s defense, she claims to have harbored scores of Jews within its walls during World War II.  However, further inspection shows that the only Jews the Vatican ever helped were those who converted to Catholicism.[49]  The Vatican also aided Pavelic and many other Ustasha members in fleeing Yugoslavia after the war, and portrayed them as Croatian patriots who opposed Tito’s Communist regime.[50]

These disturbing actions by such a “holy” office as the Pope, and such a well-respected institution as the Roman Catholic Church surprise and shock many.  Pope John Paul II labeled the year 2000 as the “year of repentance,” and has even apologized and admitted that Catholics have sinned gravely in the past.  However, it should be noted that the Pope did not place the responsibility upon the Church, but upon the children of the Church.[51]  The Pope and the Church are still believed to be God’s instruments on earth, and as such, are still “infallible.”  But should we be surprised by all of this?  The Catholic Church has been claiming infallibility for years, and thus could never take responsibility for any of her sins.  She has also been involved in the outside world politically, economically, and even militarily since her conception 1700 years ago, in spite of Christ’s call for his followers to be separate from this world.[52]  Without question, the Catholic Church certainly wants people to forget about her actions during World War II, when she neglected to defend countless non-Catholics in Catholic lands.  Some say that Rome did the best she possibly could, while others, such as former BBC commentator and Vatican expert Avro Manhattan, are much more pessimistic about the true intentions of Rome:

Here(Croatia) the Catholic Church erected a State in complete accord with all her tenets…implementing all her principles, unhampered by opposition, or by fear of world opinion.  The uniqueness of the Independent Catholic State of Croatia lies precisely in this: that it provided a model, in miniature, of what the Catholic Church, had she the power, would like to see in the West and, indeed, everywhere.[53]

Regardless of either extreme opinion, we must all agree that World War II was a brutal time in human history, a time when humanity needed divine guidance.  Unfortunately, the self-acclaimed “one true Church,” and the “infallible” Vicar of Christ fell miserably short and did not provide such guidance.  Both the Roman Catholic Church and Pope Pius XII neglected to stand tall in the face of Nazi and Ustasha evil, and failed to set a true Christian example for the world to see.   


Chick, Jack T.  Smokescreens.  Ontario: Chick Publications, 1983.

Cornwell, John.  Hitler's Pope.  New York: Viking Penguin, 1999.

Hunt, David.  A Woman Rides the Beast.  Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 1994.

Paris, Edmond.  The Secret History of the Jesuits.  Ontario: Chick Publications, 1975.

Pattee, Richard.  The Case of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac.  Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1953.

Phayer, Michael.  The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

amet, Sabrina P.  Balkan Babel.  Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.

Ramet, Sabrina P.  Eastern Europe – Politics, Culture, and Society since 1939.  Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Sulzberger, C.L.  World War II.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.

[1] David Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast (Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 1994), page 231.

[2] Hunt, 231.

[3] Michael Phayer, The Catholic Church and the Holocaust (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), page 32.

[4] Phayer, 32.

[5] Phayer, 32.

[6] Quoted in Hunt, 281.

[7] Phayer, 17.

[8] Quoted in Hunt, 283.

[9] Hunt, 283.

[10] Edmond Paris, The Secret History of the Jesuits (Ontario: Chick Publications, 1975), page 145.

[11] Quoted in Hunt, 296.

[12] Hunt, 296.

[13] John Cornwell, Hitler’s Pope (New York: Viking Penguin, 1999), page 249.

[14] Phayer, 33.

[15] Cornwell, 248.

[16] C.L. Sulzberger, World War II (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987), page 50.

[17] Sulzberger, 52.

[18] See picture 1 at end of paper.

[19] Phayer, 32.

[20] Cornwell, 250.

[21] Sabrina P. Ramet, Eastern Europe – Politics, Culture, and Society since 1939.  (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998), page 161.

[22] Cornwell, 251.

[23] Quoted in Hunt, 304.

[24] Hunt, 304.

[25] Ramet, 161.

[26] Jack T. Chick, Smokescreens (Ontario: Chick Publications, 1983), page 32.

[27] See pictures 2 and 3 at end of paper.

[28] Richard Pattee, The Case of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1953), page 258.

[29] Quoted in Hunt, 301.

[30] Phayer, 32.

[31] Paris, 146.  See picture 4 at end of paper.

[32] See picture 5 at end of paper.

[33] See picture 7 at end of paper.

[34] If you would like to view these pictures, go to

[35] Hunt, 304.

[36] See picture 6 at end of paper.

[37] Hunt, 302.

[38] Cornwell, 254.

[39] See picture 8 at end of paper.

[40] Hunt, 302.

[41] Cornwell, 253.

[42] Cornwell, 252.

[43] Cornwell, 251.

[44] Quoted in Cornwell, 256.

[45] Cornwell, viii.

[46] Cornwell, 259.

[47] Hunt, 305.

[48] See picture 9 at end of paper.

[49] Phayer, 36.

[50] Hunt, 322.

[51] Hunt, 315.

[52] KJV Bible, 2nd Corinthians 6:17

[53] Quoted in Hunt, 301-02.