American Indian Experience, Issues, and Resources
Journal of American Indian Education -- good articles and research.
Index of Native American Resources on the Internet -- more useful links.
The Indian Boarding School System -- good material about the history of Indian boarding schools, which were used as part of an attempt at "forced assimilation."
Carlisle Indian Industrial School -- an excellent site that focuses on the distressing history of this well known Indian boarding school.
Brainwashing and Boarding Schools: Undoing the Shameful Legacy -- a good discussion of the ways Indian boarding schools engaged in forced assimilation to the detriment of many of their students -- the site says, "Boarding schools were an important part of the American Indian experience. They still are a critical factor in why some American Indian parents find it difficult to communicate with public school system administrators and teachers – and even more difficult to trust them."
Indian Boarding Schools: The Experience of a Chippewa Cree -- a powerful video interview with a Chippewa Cree man who went to an Indian boarding school -- he describes the abuse and emotional and cultural damage.
Indian Boarding School Abuse -- a powerful video interview with a Lakota woman, Joanne Tall, about her negative experiences in an Indian boarding school.
Indian Boarding Schools: Civilizing the Native Spirit -- a curricular unit, with lesson plans, about the Indian Boarding School movement and its rationale and negative features and consequences.
The Dark Legacy of the Indian Boarding Schools -- an 2007article written by Tim Giago, a Lakota journalist, about the deep damage done to an entire generation of American Indians.
Bibliography of Indian Boarding Schools -- more good information and material about the history of the Indian boarding school movement.
Fluff and Feathers: Treatment of American Indians in the Literature and the Classroom -- a good article by Native American scholar, Cornel Pewewardy, Ph.D., about the need for more culturally responsive teachers of American Indian children -- includes a good discussion of learning style orientations and issues for American Indian children.
Living Stories -- Present-day stories told by American Indians about their experience as Indians in the U.S. -- a number of the stories relate parents' own or their children's negative experiences in schools due to cultural insensitivity and racism on the part of educators, curricular materials, and activities.
Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Children -- an article by Cornel Pewewardy and Patricia Cahape about the importance of teachers engaging in: critical self-reflection to counter personal stereotypes and biases; creating caring, inclusive classrooms; developing relevant cultural knowledge and literacy; and presenting rich and diverse cultural material and perspective in the classroom.
Racism and Nativism in American Political Culture -- a collection of curricular unit plans created by teachers in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Insititute.
Thanksgiving Mourning -- Much of the mythology that surrounds Thanksgiving focuses on the peaceful, cross-cultural exchange between the "Pilgrims and Indians." While it's true that the Wampanoag and the Planters shared in a harvest celebration, within fifty years the Wampanoag would no longer be a free people. Thus, for some Native Americans, Thanksgiving is no cause for celebration, but rather serves as a reminder of colonization's devastating impact on indigenous peoples. In this lesson plan, students explore the different perspectives of two Native American authors about the meaning of the Thanksgiving holiday and then draft letters to them.
American Indian Stereotypes: 500 Years of Hate Crimes -- a good article making connections between past and present forms of negative stereotyping, including the use of Indian mascots.
Native American Children's Perceptions of Race and Class in the Media -- a good report of interesting and valuable research -- discusses both the damaging stereotypes and the value of positive images.
The Mascot Issue -- an excellent collection of links about this important issue.
Common Themes and Questions About the Use of "Indian" Logos -- a good article that addresses many of the ideas and arguments central to this issue.
Mascots: Racism in School By State -- a site by the American Indian Cultural Support (AICS.org) organization that provides many arguments and much information to express the view that Indian mascots are racist and damaging.
The Deculturalization of Indigenous Mascots in U.S. Sports Culture -- a good article by Native American scholar, Cornel Pewewardy, Ph.D.
National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media -- an American Indian Movement (AIM) site opposed to the use of Native mascots in sport and the media.
National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media Blog -- recent information and discussion about the issue of Native mascots.
American Indian Movement Homepage -- an activist organization working for the human and civil rights of American Indians.
American Indian Movement Media Project -- videos, photos, speeches, and links.
Countering Prejudice Against American Indians -- a good article for teachers.
Appropriate Methods When Teaching About Native American Peoples -- another very good article for teachers.
American Indian Contributions to the World -- a site about a book by this title -- the site includes lots of useful information and recommendations for teachers.
The Cradleboard Project -- shows how to bring Native American perspective and information into schools.
The Haudenosaunee: A Look at Today's NYS Curriculum -- a study that explores how best to incorporate information about the Haudenosaunee (the Onondaga Nation, near Syracuse, NY) into the curriculum -- many good teaching ideas.
The Pocahontas Paradox: A Cautionary Tale for Educators -- a good article by Native American scholar, Cornel Pewewardy, Ph.D.
Assessment for American Indian and Alaska Native Learners -- discusses problems of using standardized tests developed on the basis of Anglo students.
American Indian Higher Education Consortium -- a consortium/collaboration of the nations tribal colleges -- supports the work of these colleges and the national movement for tribal self-determination.
Onondaga Nation School -- the homepage of this K-8 school located in the heart of the Onondaga Nation just south of Syracuse, NY -- the school is a culturally centered institution that includes Onondaga language and culture in the educational framework. The school is designed to reflect the Onondaga people, culture, and spirit.
Alaska Native Education -- a discussion of history and the present for the purpose of identifying ways in which the educational system has failed and needs to be reformed.
The Domestication of the Ivory Tower: Institutional Adaptation of Cultural Distance -- a great article about how teachers need to learn from their Native American students, in order to teach them effectively -- applies to working with all students from non-dominant cultures.
Links to North American Indian History Sites -- lots of good links and resources.
Native Web -- a good general site - lots of resources.
National Museum of the American Indian -- a good history site at the Smithsonian Institute.
Native American Indian: Art, Culture, Education, History, Science -- lots of resources and links.
Alaska Native Knowledge Network -- some good readings and articles.
Some Good Books and Articles
Bigelow, B. & Peterson, B. 1998. Rethinking Columbus: The Next 500 Years. Rethinking Schools.
Caldwell-Wood, N. & Mitten, L. 1992. I Is Not for Indian: The Portrayal of Native Americans in Books for Young People. Multicultural Review, 1(2): 26-33.
Crow Dog, M. & Erdoes, R. 1991. Lakota Woman. Harper Perrenial.
Deyhle, D. 1986. Break Dancing and Breaking Out: Anglos, Utes, and Navajos in a Border Reservation High School. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 17(2): 111-127.
Deyhle, D. 1995. Navajo Youth and Anglo Racism: Cultural Integrity and Resistance. Harvard Educational Review, 65(3): 403-444.
Deyhle, D. 1998. From Break Dancing to Heavy Metal. Youth and Society, 30(1): 3-22.
Deyhle, D. & Swisher, K. 1997. Research in American Indian and Alaska Native Education: From Assimilation to Self-Determination. Review of Research in Education, 22: 113-194.
Foley, D. 1996. The Silent Indian as a Cultural Production. In A. Levinson, D. Foley, & D. Holland (Eds.), The Cultural Production of the Educated Person. SUNY Press.
Henze, R. & Vanett, L. 1993. Tto Walk in Two Worlds -- or More? Challenging a Common Metaphor of Native Education. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 22: 116-134.
Klug, B. & Whitfield, P. 2002. Widening the Circle: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for American Indian Children. Routledge.
Loewen. J. 1999. Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. The New Press.
Noley, G. 1994. The Cultural Context of American Indian Education and Its Relevance to Educational Reform Efforts. In R. Ross (Ed.) Schools and Students At Risk. Teachers College Press.
Pewewardy, C. D. 1994. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Action: An American Indian Magnet School. In E. Hollins, J. King, and W. Hayman (Eds.), Teaching Diverse Populations: Formulating a Knowledge Base (pp. 77-92). State University of New York Press.
Pewewardy, C. & Willower, D. 1993. Perceptions of American Indian High School Students in Public Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education, 26(1), 52-55.
Reese, D. 1996. "But Indians Aren't Real": What Young Children Learn About Native Americans. The Harvard Education Letter, May/June, p. 7-8.
Sindell, P. 1987. Some Discontinuties in the Enculturation of Mistassini Cree Children. In G. Spindler (Ed.) Education and Cultural Process. Waveland Press.
Slapin, B. and Seale, D. 1998. Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children. Contemporary American Indian Series. Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, University of California.
Anderson, D. 2001. The Iroquois Kit. Ithaca, NY: Ithaca City School District, Project Look Sharp and TST BOCES.
Weatherford, J. 1988. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Some Good Films and Videos
In the White Man's Image -- 1991 -- a history of the Indian boarding schools.
In the Spirit of the Dawn -- 1994 -- a documentary about an effective, current, culturally relevant Indian education program in Montana.
In Whose Honor? American Indian Mascots in Sports -- 1997 -- a good documentary about the use and effect of Native American Mascots for schools and sports teams.