Linguistic Diversity, Teaching English Language Learners (ELLs), the Debate Over Bilingual Education, and More
Current State of English Language Learners in the U.S. K-12 Student Population -- a 2009 report of recent data about the demographics and geographic location of ELL students in the U.S.
Improving Achievement for English Learners: Conclusions from 2 Research Reviews -- a 2006 article that provides good background and overview and states explicitly that: "Instruction in the primary language helps English learners achieve. If at all possible, academic instruction in the primary language should be a part of the educational program of ELLs."
Who's Left Behind: Immigrant Children in High and Low LEP Schools -- a Sept. 2005 report documenting that 70% of the nation's LEP students are enrolled in 10% of the nation's schools. And, most of these schools are poorly funded and struggle to provide appropriate services for these students, many of whom come from backgrounds of limited resources.
Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Language Acquisition and Educational Achievement of English-Language Learners -- a 2008 report that provides valuable overview information, perspective, questions and concerns.
Dual Language Learners in the Early Years: Getting Ready to Succeed in School -- an excellent 2008 report, published by the National Clearinghouse for Language Acquisition, about the nature and needs of young dual language learners -- provides both general and specific information very useful to educators.
National Association for Bilingual Education -- The website gives information on current research and publications emerging in the field of Bilingual Education as well as information about programs that have been shown to be successful in different states around the country.
A Road Map for Effective Biliteracy Instruction -- This website offers an incredible array of sources, lesson plans and methods for bilingual literacy instruction. It is an endless source of information and help for teachers who work with bilingual students.
Dual Language Immersion Schools -- An explanation of dual language immersion programs in school. It explains its goals and subsequent successes. Also features links to FAQs about DLI schools and the success story of Edison Language Academy in Santa Monica, CA.
Inclusion or Exclusion? The ESL Debate -- An analysis of the “full inclusion” programs schools are implementing due to No Child Left Behind and budget cuts.
Success With English Language Learners: Lessons Learned from the Great City Schools-- a 2009 report about a number of successful programs in major U.S. cities.
Top Ten Immigration Myths and Facts -- a useful analysis of common myths and misconceptions about immigrants and immigration.
The National Immigration Forum -- an organization that "advocates and builds support for public policies that welcome immigrants and refugees to the United States."
Student Profiles -- Eight profiles of ELL students including audio interviews with them.
Teen Immigrants: Five American Stories -- a documentary that "introduces you to the hearts and minds behind unfamiliar faces, helping to break down negative stereotypes, celebrate diversity, and gain tolerance and understanding across lines of color and nationality. The program portrays the variety of challenges young immigrants face, but it also emphasizes what we all have in common." -- at this website tyou may read a transcript and interviews and view clips from the documentary.
Immigration Transforms Communities -- a 2009 article about the cultural and linguistic changes that have taken place in the community and schools of Springdale, Arkansas -- includes discussion of things educators there have done to address the needs of their growing population of ELL students and families.
ELLs and the Law: Statutes, Precedents -- a brief overview of the the key precedent setting court cases guiding policy regarding the education of English Language Learners.
A Road Map to the Bilingual Education Controversy -- an excellent overview site with lots of useful information, explanation, and links.
Bilingual Education in the United States: Historical Development and Current Issues -- a good overview of history and current controversies and developments by Carols Ovando, one of the leading scholars on this topic.
The Language Policy Website -- a site by James Crawford a researcher and writer who has focused on issues related to teaching non-native speakers of English for over 20 years.
Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition -- a website that describes the work of animportant researcher in the field of second language learning.
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition -- a site funded by the U.S. Dept. of Education that provides up-to-date statistics, information about recent developments, research and more.
Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners -- a 2007 report to the Carnegie Foundation report, by the Alliance for Excellent Education, about the experiences of and effective programs for teens who are non-native speakers of English -- includes a number of good policy recommendations.
Improving Teaching for English Language Learners -- a 2010 report by the National Clearinghouse for Language Acquisition about some successful efforts to train and support teachers for more effective work with ELLs.
English Language Learners -- a good overview page about bilingual education and much more, with many links to recent articles and research -- by Education Week.
Funding Disparities Squeeze ELL Efforts -- a 2009 article about the challenges of funding and developing effective programs for English Language Learners.
Learning the Language -- a blog site by Mary Ann Zehr, a reporter for Education Week who focuses on issues related to English language learners.
TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) -- the website of this national organization -- includes lots of good links, position papers, materials for teachers, and more.
Does Bilingual Education Work? -- a look at the research and evidence.
A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education -- a 1998 review of bilingual education research by J.P. Greene, professor at the Univeristy of Texas.
Myths and Misconceptions about Second Language Learning: What Every Teacher Needs to Unlearn -- a good article about common misconceptions held by many, including teachers, about English Language Learners (e.g., the younger the child, the more skilled in acquiring a second language).
Anatomy of the English Only Movement -- a background and history of this political movement to limit and eliminate the use of blingual education in the U.S.
Position Paper on English Only Legislation in the U.S. -- scroll down the page until you find this title -- this is a statement by the TESOL organization (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) critical of the English Only Movement -- it includes a good review of many popular assumptions and arguments associated with English Only legislation.
Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K-12: Findings of a Five Year Study -- a longitudinal study, published in 2006, that suggests Proposition 227 (an "English-Only" policy in California that limits the use of bilingual education in that state), has not produced significant improvement in English learning.
Bilingual Education Resources on the Internet -- lots of good resources and links.
A Toolkit for Effective Instruction of English Language Learners -- teaching ideas, lesson plans, and more.
Cross-Cultural Language and Academic Development -- the characteristics of good teaching for English Language Learners -- includes information and guidance regarding lesson planning, culturally influenced learning styles, and teaching strategies.
Portraits of Four Schools: Meeting the Needs of Immigrant Students and Their Families -- an excellent report about four schools that are part of the School of the 21st Century project, a school reform model that is community based and associated with the School Development project at Yale University -- good details about effective schools and educational policy and practice.
How Do You Support Second-Language Learners in the Classroom -- a short video with some good teaching ideas about how to value and support English language learners in the classroom.
Bilingual Research Journal -- a publication of the National Association for Bilingual Education -- full text articles online presenting quality research about bilingual eduation and bilingualism.
Best Evidence: Research Foundations of the Bilingual Education Act -- a 1997 report funded by the U.S. Dept. of Education.
Does Bilingual Education Work? -- another article that addresses key points in the debate.
Bilingual Education Works -- an article by Stephen Krashen, a researcher interested in the debate over bilingual education.
What Now for Bilingual Education? -- an article from Rethinking Schools.
Bilingual Education is a Human and Civil Right -- an editorial that argues bilingual education is a fundamental right.
Bilingual Education and Latino Civil Rights -- an article presented by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.
National Association for Bilingual Education -- an organization that supports and advocates for bilingual education.
"How Did You Learn to Write in English When You Haven't Been Taught in English?" The Language Experience Approach in a Dual Language Program -- a good article from the Bilingual Research Journal, about the value of truly bilingual schooling.
Crosscultural Differences in Learning Styles of Secondary English Learners -- a good article about culturally linked learning differences that are valuable for teachers to understand.
Working with Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Families -- very good recommendations based on research.
Bilingual Education: New Visions for a New Era -- an article about how two schools in California are addressing the needs of ESL students differently since bilingual education was eliminated in that state in 1998.
CLNet Bilingual Education -- discussion boards, history, instructional programs, and more.
California Referendum Mandates "English-Only" -- an article about the ballot initiative in California which eliminated bilingual education in that state.
Proposition 227: A Story -- This six and a half minute video explains bilingual education and the content of Proposition 227, a law passed in California that limits the use of bilingual instruction in schools.
An Analysis of Proposition 227 in California -- good analysis and review of the impact of Proposition 227 in California, which eliminated bilingual education in that state.
English Learners Still Far Behind Under English-only law -- This article analyzes the effects on the achievement gap that Proposition 227 has had on bilingual students 13 years after its implementation. It reports on the long-term affects of the policy and how it unfairly disadvantages students.
Bilingual Education: Strike Two -- an article about Arizona voters choosing English-only instruction.
Education World: The Bilingual Education Debate -- this article discusses the growing opposition to bilingual education as well as the different types of bilingual education.
Obituary: The Bilingual Ed Act, 1968-2002 -- an essay about changes in federal legislation.
Points on SAT-9 Performance and Proposition 227 -- a good discussion of the test used in California to assess language and academic achievement.
The "English for the Children" Organization -- website of the "English only" group that wants to eliminate bilingual education from U.S. schools.
National Association for Bilingual Education -- a national organization that promotes "educational excellence and equity through bilingual education."
Advocacy for Language Minorities: Examining the Issues -- a good set of letters and public statements in suport of bilingual education and the fair treatment of language minorities, by Professor Jill Kerper Mora, at San Diego State University.
The Rice School/La Escuela Rice: A New Way of Learning -- a fully, two-way bilingual school in Houston, Texas, where ALL students, both native speakers of English and Spanish, learn in both Spanish and English.
Bilingual Education: Learning in Mandarin -- A teacher at the Chinese-American International School in San Francisco discusses the rising popularity of Chinese bilingual education.
Evergreen Elementary School Builds Skills with a Two-Way Language Curriculum -- a good article about a two-way bilingual school in Olympia, WA.
Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners -- an excellent list of links with specific information about different cultural/linguistic groups and with information about the teaching of different disciplines.
Educating Language-Minority Children -- a good report with clear guidelines for teachers.
To Meet Your Students Where They Are, First You Have to Find Them: Working With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse At-Risk Students -- good case study examples and recommendations.
Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students -- describes an effective transitional bilingual program in Los Angeles.
Helping English Learners Increase Achievement Through Inquiry-Based Science Instruction -- a study reports that inquiry-based science instruction improved performance not only in science, but in math, reading, and writing.
Mathematics Achievement of Language Minority Students During the Elementary Years -- a brief 2008 report by the National Center for Education Statistics.
Families Absorb Language Through Children -- an article about some U.S. public schools in which some of the instruction is in a language other than English (e.g., Spanish, French, Japanese, German, etc.)
Planning Instruction for English Language Development: A Knowledge Base and Teaching Strategies -- a guide "for teachers who wish to enhance their knowledge base and repertoire of teaching strategies for promoting language and literacy development with bilingual learners."
Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children -- an article about teachers educating children with limited English skills -- guides educators working with linguistically diverse students and helps them recognize that bilingualism is a process that occurs in stages.
PASO Partners Bilingual Program -- a good example of bilingual lesson plans and teaching ideas for elementary math and science.
Responding to the Demographic Challenge: An Internet Classroom for Teachers of Language-Minority Students -- a good essay and lots of links and resources.
English as a Second Language -- a resource site for ESL learners who want to improve their English through use of materials and links on the internet.
Immigrant Education Issues -- extensive resources relevant to educating immigrant students.
Portraits of Four Schools: Meeting the Needs of Immigrant Students and Their Families -- a report on what four schools are doing to work effectively with immigrant students and their families -- conducted by a research team at Yale University.
Everything ESL -- everything ESL offers free resources, lessons, games, tips, and much more for teachers of students learning English. The lesson plans include links to worksheets and additional information on the particular topics.
Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Professional Development -- this website contains links to information to accommodate language and linguistic diversity in schools.
Bilingual Education -- this website offers information pertaining to many different forms of bilingual education from English as Second Language to Two-way immersion programs.
Raising Multilingual Children -- this website is great for parent's who want to raise bilingual or multilingual children. It offers resources and books for parents to learn about a child's inner instinct to want to learn language and to communicate.
International Email Classroom Connections -- in 1992, IECC was created as a web service to facilitate international pen pal exchanges. Through e-mail pen pals or classroom project exchanges students are encouraged to create friendships with people from other cultures and countries.
Dave's ESL Cafe -- this site offers a variety of materials for ESL and EFL teachers and students. Teachers and students can go into individual chats or group chats to discuss issues of relevance.
Elizabeth Claire's Easy English NEWS -- This site provides free materials and news articles for teachers of ELL students.
A Nation with Many Languages -- A policy study about the problems facing ELL students and their educators. Thestudyt looks at misconceptions about ELL students, statistics showing increasing numbers of ELL students in public schools, state and federal legislation regarding ELL students, and recommendations for educators who instruct ELL students.
Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center -- This website is a great resource for those who teach, or want to teach, ELL in upstate New York.
Lanternfish -- This website provides free worksheets/flash-cards and advertises jobs for ELL/TEFL teachers.
Dual Language Consortium -- The Dual Language Consortium was created in 2006 by 5 non-profit organizations and leading dual language researchers to provide knowledge and research about dual language programs and what makes them successful.
New Park Elementary School -- New Park Elementary School in Harlan, Iowa is a school with a fully functioning Bilingual Education Program. The school website provides resources that teachers can use in understanding ELL students as well as helping to create useful lesson plans in bilingual education.
Everything ESL -- The website provides key teaching techniques and methods for creating successful ESL programs as well as outlining challenges that may arise when working with ELL students and how to overcome these issues.
National Association for Bilingual Education -- The National Association for Bilingual Education provides justification for bilingual education. The website gives information on current research and publications emerging in the field of Bilingual Education as well as information about programs that have shown to be successful in different states around the country.
Dual Language Consortium -- The Dual Language Consortium was created in 2006 by 5 non-profit organizations and leading dual language researchers to provide knowledge and research about dual language programs and what makes them successful.
Teaching English Language Learner Students Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States -- This source identifies professional standards and guidelines for teachers of grades kindergarten through eighth grade to use when working with English Language Learners.
Preparing Bilingual Teacher Candidates: A Linguistic Conundrum in a Changing Political Landscape -- discusses how the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) reenacted after the passing of No Child Left Behind in 2001 effects how bilingual teachers teach ELL students.
Bilingual Booklist: Lectura Recomendada -- a list of bilingual books for different age groups that can enhance a classroom library or curriculum.
World Music Press -- Top quality, award winning multicultural music-books, recordings, and choral music for educators, community outreach programs, and music lovers.
Using Music to Support ELL -- This website provides resources to educators looking to use music to support literacy development.
ELL: What every Teacher Needs to Know -- An instructional video that provides examples of teaching methods educators should and should not use when educating their ELL students.
ESL Flow -- this website provides ideas for teachers of English as a Second Language.
I Teach, I Learn: Educational Ideas and Solutions -- the mission of this site is to provide opportunities for learning to students and educators from all cultural, linguistic, and economic backgrounds.
About.com free online Spanish Dictionary -- this site offers audio clips of individual words in both Spanish and English.
The Immigration Debate in the Classroom 2007 -- extensive resources for teaching about the immigration debate in the U.S. -- lot of good links and resources.
Institute for Integrative Science at Cape Breton University -- a website for an integrative Science program that combines Mi’kmaw science and Western science in the teaching of biology and ecology.
Mi’kmaq College Institute -- this website is devoted to the University of Cape Breton’s program to support Mi’kmaw students.
DeafPlanet.com -- This is a website created for children who are deaf or hard of hearing that uses both written English and sign language. It includes interactive games, videos, and science experiments that teachers or parents can utilize to engage deaf or hard of hearing students.
National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Center on Access Technology -- This is the website for the NTID (RIT’s National Technical Institute for the Deaf) Center on Access Technology.
Some Good Books and Articles
Ambert, A. 1991. Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language: A Research Handbook. Garland.
Andrews, J. F., & Rusher, M. (2010). Codeswitching Techniques: Evidence-Based Instructional Practices for ASL/English Bilingual Classroom. American Annals of the Deaf, Vol 155 , 407-424.
Battiste, M. Micmac Literacy and Cognitive Assimilation. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Mokakit Indian Education Research Association. July 26, 1984.
Brooks, K & Karathanos, K. 2009. Building on the Cultural and Linguistic Capital of English Learner (EL) Students. Multicultural Education, 16(4), 47-51.
Campano, G. 2006. Immigrant Students and Literacy. Teachers College Press.
Chamot, A. 1994. The Calla Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Charity-Hudley, A. and Malinson, C. 2011. Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools. Teachers College Press.
Crawford, J. 1999. Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice. Bilingual Education Services.
Crawford, J. 2000. At War with Diversity: U.S. Language Policy in an Age of Anxiety. Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, J. 1996. Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Cummins, J. 2001. Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 71(4): 649-675.
Darder, A. et al., (Eds.) 1997. Latinos and Education: A Critical Reader. Routledge.
Faltis, C. 2001. Joinfostering: Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Classrooms. Merrill Prentice Hall.
Farruggio, P. (2010). Latino Immigrant Parents' View of Bilingual Education as a Vehicle for Heritage Preservation. Journal of Latinos and Education, 3-21.
Fitzgerald, Jill. 2000. How Will Bilingual/ESL Programs in Literacy Change in the Next Millennium. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(4): 520-523.
Garcia, E. and Frede, E. 2010. Young English Language Learners. Teachers College Press.
Genesee, F. 1994. Educating Second Language Children: The Whole Child, the Whole Curriculum, the Whole Community. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Himmele, P. & Himmele, W. 2009. The Language Rich Classroom. ASCD.
Igoa, C. 1995. The Inner World of the Immigrant Child. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jobe, V. 2005. What Does It Take for English-Language Learners to Succeed in a Society Where They Are Not Expected to Succeed. Childhood Education, 82(1): 44-46.
Kottler, E. 1994. Children with Limited English: Teaching Strategies for the Regular Classroom. Corwin Press.
Krashen, S. 1996. Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Language Education Associates.
Krashen, S. 1998. Condemned Without a Trial: Bogus Arguments Against Bilingual Education. Heinemann.
Lucas, T. et al., 1990. Promoting the Success of Latino Language Minority Students: An Exploratory Study of Six High Schools. Harvard Educational Review, 60(3): 315-340.
Macedo, D. 2000. The Colonialism of the English Only Movement. Educational Researcher, 29(3):15-24.
Macrory, G. (2006). Bilingual Language Development: What do Early Years Practitioners Need to Know? Early Years, Volume 26 , pp. 159-169.
Martin-Beltran, M. (2010). The Two-way Language Bridge: Co-constructing Bilingual Language Learning Opportunities. Modern Language Journal, Vol 94, 254-277.
McCollum, H. et al., 1993. Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Family Literacy and Parent Involvement. U.S. Department of Education.
McLeod, B. 1994. Language and Learning: Educating Linguistically Diverse Students. SUNY Press.
Orelus, P. 2011. Courageous Voices of Immigrants and Transnationals of Color. Peter Lang.
Ovando, C. et al., 2003. Bilingual & ESL Classrooms: Teaching in Multicultural Contexts. McGraw Hill.
Padilla, R. & Benavides, A. (Eds.) 1992. Critical Perspectives on Bilingual Education Research. Bilingual Press.
Padillo, A. et al., (Eds.) 1990. Bilingual Education: Issues and Strategies. Sage.
Perez, B. & Torres-Guzman, M. 2002. Learning in Two Worlds: An Integrated Spanish/English Biliteracy Approach. Allyn and Bacon.
Reyes, M. 1992. Challenging Venerable Assumptions: Literacy Instruction for Linguistically Different Students. Harvard Educational Review, 62(4): 427-446.
Reyes, P. et al., (Eds.), 1999. Lessons from High Performing Hispanic Schools: Creating Learning Communities. Teachers College Press.
Ribeiro, L. 2005. Multicultural Training: Familiarity Breeds Success. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 28.
Richard-Amato, P. & Snow, M. 1992. The Multicultural Classroom: Readings for Content-Area Teachers. Longman.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2008. Linguistic Genocide in Education or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Orient Longman.
Slavin, R. & Calderon, M. 2001. Effective Programs for Latino Students. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Soto, L. 1997. Language, Culture, and Power: Bilingual Families and the Struggle for Quality Education. SUNY Press.
Spener, D. 1988. Transitional Bilingual Education and the Socialization of Immigrants. Harvard Educational Review, 58(2): 133-153.
Stewart, S. 2006. First Nations Education: Financial Accountability and Educational Attainment. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(4): 98-1018.
Thomas, W. 1999. Accelerated Schooling for English Language Learners. Educational Leadership, 46.
Tse, L. 2001. "Why Don't They Learn English?" Separating Fact from Fallacy in the U.S. Language Debate. Teachers College Press.
Tucker, G., & Alison, D. (2003). Some Thoughts Regarding Bilingual Education Programs. McGill University
Valdes, G. 2001. Learning and Not Learning English: Latino Students in American Schools. Teachers College Press.
Valdes, G. 2011. Latino Children Learning English: Steps in the Journey. Teachers College Press.
Valencia, R. (Ed.) 1991. Chicano School Failure and Success. Falmer Press.
Valenzuela, A. 1999. Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. SUNY Press.
Varghese, M. & Stritikus, T. 2005. Nidie Me Dijo (Nobody Told Me): Language Policy Negotiation and Implications for Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(1): 73 - 88.
Walsh, C. 1996. Pedagogy and the Struggle for Voice: Issues of Language, Power and Schooling for Puerto Ricans. Bergin & Garvey.
Wolf, M. K., Herman, J. L., & Dietel, R. 2010. Improving the Validity of English Language Learner Assessment Systems. CRESST Policy Brief No. 10 - Full Report. University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.
Zehr, M. 2005. State Testing of English-Learners Scrutinized. Education Week, 15:3.
Zentella, A. 1997. Growing Up Bilingual: Puerto Rican Children in New York. Blackwell.
Zimmerman, L. 2000. Bilingual Education as a Manifestation of an Ethic of Caring. Educational Horizons, 78(2): 72-76.
Films & Videos
Bilingualism: A True Advantage -- a documentary about successful bilingual education.
Hispanic Education at the Crossroads -- a film about educational issues and effective schools for Latino youth.
Speaking in Tongues -- a documentary with 3 stories about different types of ELL/bilingual education experiences.
One Child, Two Languages -- a documentary about the experiences of being an ELL in school.
High School of American Dreams -- a documentary about a NYC high school for new immigrant youth who speak very little English.