African-American Experience and Issues of Race and Racism in U.S. Schools
Status and Trends in the Education of Blacks -- an Oct. 2003 report by the National Center for Education Statistics.
The Economic Mobility of Black and White Families -- a 2007 report by the Pew Charitable Trust Foundation comparing the economic progress of Black and White families -- the data show that the gap is widening.
Race and the Recession: How Inequity Rigged the Economy and How to Change the Rules -- a report that tells the stories of people of color who have been disproportionately affected by the recession.
Unequal Opportunity Lenders: Analyzing Racial Disparities in Big Banks' Higher Priced Lending -- a 2009 study showing that "Among high income borrowers in 2006, African Americans were three times as likely as whites to pay higher prices for mortgages -- 32.1% compared to 10.5 %. Hispanics were nearly as likely as African Americans to pay higher prices for their mortgages at 29.1%."
A Good Credit Score Did Not Protect Latino and Black Borrowers -- this 2012 study of mortgages signed during the years 2004-2008 shows that African American and Latino borrowers with high credit scores were three or more times likely to be inappropriately "pushed into" high cost, high risk mortgages than whites with the same credit scores.
African American Achievement in America -- a brief and valuable 2003 report by the Education Trust Foundation -- includes data about and discussion of the education/achievement gap and about schools and programs that are overcoming it.
Confronting the Low Expectations of Racism -- an excellent 2004 article by Julie Landsman that details the sometimes overt and sometimes subtle or unconscious ways educators express and act on low expectations in their interactions with African American youth and their parents/caregivers.
The Mis-Education of the Negro -- this is an online copy of Carter G. Woodson's still vital 1933 book, The Mis-Education of the Negro, with an excellent Introduction, "History Is a Weapon," by Charles Wesley and Thelma Perry, who write: "The most imperative and crucial element in Woodson's concept of mis-education hinged on the education system's failure to present authentic Negro History in schools and the bitter knowledge that there was a scarcity of literature available for such a purpose, because most history books gave little or no space to the black man's presence in America. Some of them contained casual references to Negroes but these generally depicted them in menial, subordinate roles, more or less sub-human. Such books stressed their good fortune at having been exposed, through slavery, to the higher (white man's) civilization. There were included derogatory statements relating to the primitive, heathenish quality of the African background, but nothing denoting skills, abilities, contributions or potential in the image of the Blacks, in Africa or America. Woodson considered this state of affairs deplorable, an American tragedy, dooming the Negro to a brain-washed acceptance of the inferior role assigned to him by the dominant race, and absorbed by him through his schooling."
Mind the Gap: Why Good Schools are Failing Black Students -- an excellent 2009 radio documentary about how in many well-funded suburban schools where white students are doing well, many black and hispanic students, even youth from middle-class families, are falling behind. This one-hour radio documentary looks at the causes of the minority achievement gap through the stories of students, teachers, and parents at a diverse public high school in Maplewood, NJ.
Racial Divide Runs Deep in U.S. Schools, Study Finds -- a short article about a 2012 report of data from 72,000 schools in the U.S. that reveals many racial disparities in U.S. schools, especially disproportionately high suspension and expulsion rates for African American youth. The report also includes information about schools that are breaking these patterns and achieving success in addressing the achievement gap.
Big Racial Gap in Suspension of Middle School Students -- a 2010 report that documents the racial disparity in school suspension rates, raising serious questions about discipline policies and how they are implemented.
School Discipline: Tougher on African Americans -- an editorial exploring racism in schools, particularly in the fact that black students are written up and disciplined more often than white students.
School Practices for Equitable Discipline of African American Students -- an article discussing the idea that African Americans are often encouraged to act out by culture. It challenges educators to think critically about the reasons why a student is misbehaving before employing disciplinary measures.
Accountability, Ability and Disability: Gaming the System? -- this article provides a specific example of the testing system in Florida public schools and describes how the testing system over-identifies students of color and poor students as having disabilities, based on the results of only one test.
A Girl Like Me -- an excellent short film by Kiri Davis about issues of racial stereotyping, identity, and appearance, especially as these relate to the experience of African American girls and young women -- includes footage of a recent implementation of an experiment in which African American children are asked to choose between and show their preference for either a Black or a white doll (YouTube).
Souls of Black Girls -- a video trailer for the longer film of this name -- a goup of Black women discuss ways in which media images of Black women are frustratingly demeaning and limiting.
Closing the Racial Achievement Gap: The Best Strategies of the Schools We Send Them To -- a very good article by Dr. Pedro Noguera, Professor of Education at New York University.
Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap -- another excellent article by Dr. Pedro Noguera, professor of Education at New York University
The Trouble with Black Boys: The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African American Males -- a very good article by Harvard scholar Pedro Noguera -- valuable for all who are interested in addressing the education/achievement gap.
Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence -- a 1972 article that foreshadows the development of what is now called culturally responsive or culturally competent teaching -- by linguistic scholar William Labov, who makes the point that "inner-city children do not necessarily have inferior mothers, language, or experience, but that the language, family style, and ways of living of inner-city children are significantly different from the standard culture of the classroom, and that this difference is not always properly understood by teachers and psychologists. Linguists believe that we must begin to adapt our school system to the language and learning styles of the majority in the inner-city schools."
Shawn Ginwright Webpage -- the home page of scholar activisit Shawn Ginwright, a leading expert on African American youth, youth activism, and youth development. He's author of a number of good books (including Black in School: Afrocentric Reform, Urban Youth, and the Promise of Hip-Hop Culture, and Black Youth Rising: Activism & Radical Healing in Urban America) and co-founder of the Institute for Radical Healing, a newly formed institute dedicated to pioneering research and wellness practices that build the capacity of individuals and communities of color to sustain social change efforts.
The Politics of Children's Literature: What's Wrong with the Rosa Parks Myth? -- an article and lesson plan by Herb Kohl about the problems inherent in how the story of Rosa Parks is often told and taught in schools and about the importance of teaching the truth about her life of committed activism.
The Racial Wealth Divide Project -- research and publications documenting ways in which government policies have contributed to racial inequalities.
Racial Bias Built Into Tests -- a 2000 article about a successful case brought against a statewide Texas aptitude test that was found to have racial bias built into its design -- the article also explains that the test construction methods used in designing this test are common.
Barack Obama's Speech on Race -- as a candidate President Obama delivered this speech on issues of race in America -- read the transcript and listen to it here, or, go to this link to see and hear the speech.
Black Agenda Forum -- video of a March 2010 panel discussion with many key African American leaders, scholars, educators, community activists, and others -- the discussion focuses on challenges facing the African-American community and the nation, the question of whether America is in a "post-racial" era after the election of President Barack Obama, and the future of race relations in the U.S. and world.
Historic Reversals, Accelerating Resegregation, and the Need for New Integration Strategies -- an important 2007 report about the increasing segregation and inequality of U.S. schools -- by Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee of the Civil Rights Project, at UCLA.
Boundary Crossing for Diversity, Equity and Achievement: Inter-District School Desegregation and Educational Opportunity -- a 2009 study that "provides an overview of the educational and social benefits of eight inter-district school desegregation programs – from Boston to East Palo Alto, CA -- that have enabled disadvantaged, Black and Latino students to cross school district boundary lines and attend far more affluent, predominantly White and privileged suburban public schools. These programs, some of which date back to the Civil Rights Movement, grew out of grassroots struggles for social justice and are aimed at reducing inequality by assuring that students who have traditionally had the fewest educational opportunities would gain access to the “best” schools. Despite the fact that these programs are out of sync with the current political framing of problems and solutions in the field of education, the research on these programs to date suggests that they are far more successful than recent choice and accountability policies at closing the achievement gaps and offering meaningful school choices."
A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We Losing the Dream? -- a 2003 report by the UCLA Civil Rights Project about the current and ongoing resegregation of schools in the U.S.
Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resgregating School Districts -- a 2002 study by the UCLA Civil Rights Project about the current and ongoing resegregation of schools
in the U.S.
The Little Rock Nine: 50 Years Later -- seven of the nine African American students who first integrated Central High School in Little Roc, AK, speak about their experiences in this media presentation of interview clips and photographs -- listen and make the connections to current events.
How Desegregation Changed Us: The Effects of Racially Mixed Schools on Students and Society-- the final report of the "Understanding Race and Education Study," completed in 2004. The central finding is that desegregation "fundamentally changed the people who lived through it." "Desegregation made the vast majority of students who attended these schools less racially prejudiced and more comfortable around people of different backgrounds. "Yet it had a more limited impact on the larger society."
African American Educator from Jena, LA Speaks Out-- a video interview with a former Principal and Assistant Superintendent in Jena, Louisiana, who is African American -- he was principal of an all-black high school in Jena before desgregation -- he speaks out here about past and present segregation and racism in schools -- you may either watch on video or just listen to the radio broadcast -- very informative!
Applied Research Center -- an organization working to "advance racial justice through research, advocacy and journalism."
Making the Grade: A Racial Justice Report Card -- a study by ERASE (now the Applied Research Center) including information about how to collect data for assessing your own school district.
Facing the Consequences: An Examination of Racial Discrimination in U.S. Schools -- a valuable research report from March 2000 -- includes information about tracking, teachers/teaching, disciplinary policies, graduation rates, and more.
ERASE Racism -- an organization that "develops and promotes policies and initiatives to end the perpetuation of institutional racism in arenas such as public school education, housing, health care, and economic development."
A Guide for African American Parents: How to Help Your Child Care for College and Career -- put together by The Education Trust.
The Homepage of Author/Historian James Loewen -- good information about the teaching of U.S. history and Loewen's numerous and award winning books and research, including discussion of and excerpts from: Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your High School History Textbook Got Wrong; Teaching What Really Happened; Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong; Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism; and more.
The Sounds of Silence: Talking Race in Music Education -- a 2007 article about the importance of creating an approach to music education that's anti-racist in its goals and practices.
Breaking Down Barriers -- a report on a high school program in Michigan that successfully brought students together across racial and other social and cultural divisions.
Race Bridges -- an organization that offers free lesson plans to promote interracial understanding.
National Alliance of Black School Educators (NABSE) -- an organization "dedicated to improving the educational experiences and accomplishments of African American youth through the development and use of instructional and motivational methods that increase levels of inspiration, attendance and overall achievement".
Engaging African American Males in Reading -- a great article by Alfred Tatum, with many useful insights and great teaching ideas and examples -- published in Educational Leadership in 2006, and available here online.
Classroom Cultural Ecology: The Dynamics of Classroom Life in Schools Serving Low-Income African American Children -- a 2000 research report that details the characteristics and practices of effective teachers working with low-income African American children -- lots of valuable insight and information.
Race and the Schooling of Black Americans -- an insightful article, from 1992, by Stanford Professor, Claude Steele.
"Stereotype Threat" and Black College Students -- another valuable article by Stanford Professor, Claude Steele, from 1999 -- explains the concept of stereotype threat and related research -- very useful to educators and teachers.
Black Students Are Not Culturally Biased Against Academic Achievement -- this study about African American students' attitudes toward school and academic achievement shows that where an anti-achievement attitude develops, it is "over time and is most likely to occur in schools where blacks are grossly underrepresented in the most challenging courses" -- i.e., oppositional attitudes are "not learned in the black community, as some have suggested, but are instead constructed in schools under certain conditions, the product of life and experience in school, not the home culture."
Racial Bias in Testing -- an essay by Christopher Jencks about this troubling and important issue.
Race and Education -- a site with good programs and links with a particular focus on continued segregation in U.S. schools.
Supreme Court and School Diversity -- a radio program about two 2006 Supreme Court cases that call into question the efforts of many school districts to integrate their schools -- includes tape of the Supreme Court hearings on Dec. 4, 2006.
Bending Toward Justice: The Unfinished Legacy of Brown v. Board of Education -- an excellent collection of articles about what the Brown case attempted to achieve and the extensive and complex work that remains.
The Ruling That Changed America -- a good overview article about Brown v. Board of Education, history of reaction to the decision, and where we are now with regard to its goals.
Brown v. Board of Education: Classroom Activities and Resources -- lesson plans and curricular guides for teaching about this important Supreme Court Case.
Brown v. Board of Education: An American Legacy -- a set of articles in Teaching Tolerance Magazine about this important Supreme Court case and related issues today -- includes good classroom instructional materials.
The Supreme Struggle -- a series of articles in the New York Times about the Brown v. Board of Education case and where we are now on the issues the case addressed.
Brown at 50: The Promise Unfulfilled -- a special 5-part series that takes stock of the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education case -- raises important questions about current issues of race in education.
Teaching Brown: In America's Classrooms Discussions about Race Remain Timely and Relevant -- an article about how some teachers teach about the Brown decision and issues of race and racism.
America's Next Achievement Test: Closing the Black-White Test Score Gap -- a good recent article about this important issue.
The Teaching Diverse Students Initiative -- a program designed to help educators address the education gap "by providing research-based resources for improving the teaching of racially and ethnically diverse students." Includes a set of online tools that can be adapted for use in schools and classrooms.
Uri Treisman's Merit Workshop Model -- an article about the important work and ideas of Uri Treisman, who has demonstrated how to improve teaching effectiveness when working with African American students who are not doing well in school -- he replaces remedial approaches with an honors program approach rooted in group collaboration and challenging problems in an environment of high expectations.
Uri Treisman's Faculty Home Page -- read about Prof. Treisman and access some of his publications.
Closing the Reading Achievement Gap for African American Males -- an article about the work of Alfred Tatum, who in 2006 published a book, Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males: Closing the Achievement Gap.
Brother Author: Writings from the African American Male Summer Literacy Institute-- an article by Alfred Tatum about an excellent summer writing institute he runs for African American young men.
The Algebra Project -- an exceptional math education program, now nationally recognized, created by Civil Rights activist and Harvard Ph.D., Bob Moses -- a creative and culturally responsive approach to teaching African American and other youth algebra -- algebra is a major gatekeeping course that often determines whether youth are placed on the college prep path -- the program works, and the website includes lesson ideas and other useful information.
Prep for Prep -- a successful program that demonstrates the fundamental power and value of high expectations and real opportunity in education.
The AVID Program -- a program that "places academically average students in advanced classes and supports them for success there" -- it has been very successful as measured by college admission rates of program participants, most of whom are students from groups with a history of high dropout rates and underperformance in school.
National Center for Accelerated Schools -- an approach to school reform based on the idea of providing students of limited resources with accelerated, rather than remedial, instruction -- accelerated schools use ideas from gifted and talented education to improve the education of students of limited resources, and it works!
Comer School Development Program -- started by Yale professor of child psychiatry, Dr. James Comer, this nationally recognized program helps schools develop strong bonds with parents and community that translate into significant academic performance gains -- Dr. Comer started with one school in a poor neighborhood in New Haven, CT and has built a national model for school reform that works.
Schools that Develop Children -- an excellent essay by Dr. James Comer about the value of a systemic and developmental approach to school reform -- the ideas presented here are the foundation of the Comer School Development Program, the success of which has demonstrated the value of these ideas.
Minority Student Achievement Network -- a national coalition of multiracial, urban-suburban school districts across the United States that works "to discover, develop and implement the means to ensure high academic achievement for students of color, specifically African American and Latino students."
Success for All Foundation -- a "comprehensive and effective school-restructuring program for the education of our children in reading, writing, mathematics, and the social sciences" -- the program has substantial evidence of success.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education -- a 2002 book, available online, that presents research by the National Academy of Sciences documenting the disproportionately high number of minority students in special education and the disproportionately low number of minority students in gifted programs.
Racial Inequity in Special Education -- a site with information about and selections from a new book about this issue by Gary Orfield and Daniel Losen.
A Ghetto Within a Ghetto -- an article about the research of Gary Orfield and Daniel Losen documenting that African American children, especially males, are overrepresented in special education programs.
Addressing Over-Representation of African American Students in Special Education -- a recent research report that presents data documenting this problem and things educators and community members can do to address it.
Ebonics Information Page -- good articles and links provided by the Center for Applied Linguistics.
Using Call-and-Response to Facilitate Language Mastery and Literacy Acquisition Among African American Students -- an article about teaching language and literacy through a call and response communication style.
Writings on the "Ebonics" Issue -- published writings and public presentations by John Rickford, a professor of linguistics at Stanford University.
Ebonics and Culturally Responsive Instruction: What Should Teachers Do? -- an excellent article by Lisa Delpit published in Rethinking Schools -- includes specific teaching ideas.
Embracing Ebonics and Teaching Standard English-- a helpful interview with Oakland teacher Carrie Street.
The Ebonics Debate: Power, Language, and the Education of African-American Children -- a number of chapters from the excellent book of this title, available online.
A Linguist Looks at the Ebonics Debate -- a thoughtful, well-reasoned discussion of this important issue.
Ebonics -- materials and online discussion of Ebonics at the site of the Linguistic Society of America.
The Ebonics Debate -- an article published by the Association of Black Psychologists.
Do You Speak American? African American English -- part of the PBS website which includes an essay written by Walt Wolfram, who specializes in language and culture at North Carolina State University.
Original Oakland Resolution on Ebonics -- the resolution passed by the Oakland Board of Education, and the supplemental policy statement by the Superintendent of Schools, concerning students with a background in African American Vernacular English. This resolution became very controversial as many people misunderstood it to mean that educators would be teaching students to speak and write in African American Vernacular English or Ebonics.
Comments on Ebonics-- email messages collected during the "Ebonics" controversy in spring 1997 from internet discussion lists for linguists, especially the American Dialect Society list and a list for linguistic anthropologists -- most represent the informed opinions of linguists about the variety of English known to them as African American Vernacular English, or Black Vernacular English, and its place in the schools and society.
African American Vernacular English -- some good materials and links.
Nigger (the word), A Brief History -- a good background, historical article about the n-word.
The Meanings of a Word -- an excellent essay, by Gloria Naylor, that first appeared in the New York Times in 1986, about the n-word and the significance of context in understanding its meaning and impact.
The "N-word" and the Racial Dynamics of Teaching -- a discussion in the Harvard Education Letter about the prevalence of the n-word in schools, and about how teachers should respond -- of particular significance is that white teachers report being less comfortable and less likely to address it than either African American or Latino teachers.
Consigning the "N" Word to Personal History-- a 2006 radio essay by an African American young man (at the time of the piece a first year student at Howard University) who has decided not to use the n-word.
A Roundtable Radio Discussion of the N-Word -- from NPR's News and Notes program, 2006.
N.J. Communities Debate Use of the N-Word -- listen to a 2007 news radio segment about how a number of communities and city councils haver asked their citizens to voluntarily refrain from using the n-word.
Discussing Race through Cora Unashamed -- a discussion of how teachers can teach about race, racism, and the n-word, using Langston Hughes' short story, Cora Unashamed -- includes good specific ideas for teaching about the n-word as well as suggested readings.
Examining Language in Cora Unashamed -- another good presentation about how to engage students in a critically reflective analysis of langauge use in Langston Hughes' story, Cora Unashamed, including the n-word -- includes good additional readings and resources as well as assignments and teaching ideas for pre-reading preparation and post-reading reflection and analysis.
N****r and Caricatures -- a good presentation about the history of the n-word and its use as a racial slur and demeaning caricature of African Americans.
What's In a Name? Plenty, That's What -- a good essay about the "moral and ethical issues [the n-word] raises for all of us who want to be racially responsible, inclusive and well-intended in our use of language" -- includes discussion of Randall Kennedy's controversial book, Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word.
New Word Order -- an essay about use of the n-word in popular culture.
Race and Ethnicity in Contemporary Art and Literature -- an extensive list of curricular units designed by teachers in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Lesson Plans for the Ithaca City School District's Participation in an MLK "Community Build" Project -- lesson plans developed by educators in Ithaca, NY as part of a "community read and dialogue" project using Martin Luther King, Jr.'s last book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? Major themes in the book are the topics of instruction and investigation.
African-American Art and the Political Dissent during the Harlem Renaissance -- a great curricular unit plan by a teacher in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Head Trip: A Teaching and Learning Discussion -- a self-reflective essay about one college professor's efforts to change what and how she teaches to be more truly multicultural and culturally responsive -- includes a good discussion of language issues that arise when doing this important work.
Racial Conflict in School and Community of Jena, Louisiana -- a radio story about the racial tension and incidents in Jena, Louisiana that have led to six African American youth being charged and incarcerated.
Blacks Strip Slaveholders' Names Off Schools -- a lesson plan based on a 1997 New York Times article about community members changing the name of a school in New Orleans, from George Washington Elementary to Dr. Charles Richard Drew Elementary -- includes the NYTimes article, letters written by Washington, and other materials.
A Book Examines Towns That Forced Out Blacks -- a radio interview with journalist and author Elliot Jaspin, who's book, Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America, presents history and analysis of 12 incidents in the U.S. of towns driving out blacks -- and the counties these towns are in remain almost entirely white.
African Americans and Formal Education in the American South -- valuable historical information.
Racial Bias in U.S. Dietary Guidelines, Part 1 -- a research-based discussion of guidelines that promote dairy consumption whan a majority of people of color are genetically lactose intolerant.
News and Notes -- an excellent national radio program, no longer being broadcast, that explored important events and issues "from an African American perspective." You may listen here to past shows and segments.
A Close Bond Sheds Light on Race Relations -- a radio segment about two young women, H.S. seniors and friends, one black and one white -- discussion of their friendship, similarities, and differences in experience.
Chickenbones -- a "journal for literary and artistic African-American themes" -- lots of interesting articles discussing history, racism, literature, and current events.
African Americans in Science -- an excellent site with extensive resources about African-Americans in science.
Mathematicians of the African Diaspora -- important information and teaching resources.
Using Children's Literature and Art to Examine the African-American Resistance to Injustice -- a curricular unit plan by a teacher in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
African and African-American Resources -- good links for teaching provided by the Philadelphia School District.
Women of the Movement Bios -- brief but effective biographies of women centrally involved in the Civil Rights Movement -- very useul for developing lesson plans and learning about the role of women in this important struggle.
African American Bibliography: Books for Children -- a well organized list of good books about African American experience, people, and characters.
Teaching about Africa K-12 -- a page of resources created by the Stanford University library.
Webster Groves Writing Project -- a successful multicultural approach to the teaching of writing -- this program has been written about in a number of books and articles about effective use of culture in designing and delivering instruction.
Voices from the Gaps -- a great website about "women writers of color" -- good bios and links.
Just Think -- an interesting media production program for youth that teaches critical media literacy and other important skills.
Race: The Power of an Illusion -- an online resource for an excellent documentary about race in society, science, and history -- includes background readings, a discussion/activities guide, and other good materials for teachers.
ColorLines -- an excellent magazine about issues of race, ethnicity, and racism.
Race in America: Beyond Black and White -- a series of interviews with experts, academics, politicians, and activists about the current state of race relations in America.
Racism and Nativism in American Political Culture -- a collection of curricular unit plans created by teachers in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Insititute.
African American World -- a Public Broadcasting site with good historical and other information and resources.
Education in Mississippi, 1954-1982 -- a good radio segment about failed attempts to desegregate schools in Mississippi.
African American History (The History Net) -- an excellent African American history site, with primary documents, photos, biographies, and much more -- lots of great links and resources.
The Souls of Black Folk -- W.E.B. Du Bois' classic and important book, published in 1903. Du Bois wrote in his introduction: "Herein lie buried many things which if read with patience may show the strange meaning of being black here in the dawning of the Twentieth Century. This meaning is not without interest to you, Gentle Reader; for the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line."
African American History -- another good site with teaching resources.
Say Brother -- a long running public-affairs television program dedicated to the African American experience -- started in 1968, the program has featured conversations and discussions with Julian Bond, Nikki Giovanni, Eartha Kitt, and other leaders within the African-American community.
African American History List -- links to many of the best African American history sites and museums.
Digital Schomburg -- an online archive of manuscripts at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in NYC -- lots of good materials for classroom and other use.
A Gateway to African American History -- a very useufl web portal with lots of links.
African American Odyssey -- African American collections of the Library of Congress.
African American Women -- a collection of materials at Duke University, including letters and memoirs of 19th century slave women.
Bringing the Civil Rights Movement into the Classroom -- an article about how one teacher teaches the Civil Rights Movement as an important and valuable act of resistance in U.S. history.
Partners of the Heart -- a documentary that tells the little-known story of the collaboration between white surgeon, Alfred Blalock and his African American "assistant," Vivien Thomas. Blalock recognized Thomas' talents when Thomas came inquiring after a hospital janitor's job. Thomas went on to invent many important procedures for open heart surgery, despite the fact that he did not have a medical degree and was rarely treated as an equal. Blalock came to treat Thomas with tremendous respect in the lab, but the two men were rarely treated as equals in the outside world. Over time, Thomas would go on to train two generations of the country's premier heart surgeons. In 1976, more than three decades after Thomas' first inventions successes, Johns Hopkins University finally formally recognized his extraordinary achievements, awarding him an honorary doctorate.
Frontiers in Civil Rights: Dorothy E. Davis, et al. versus County School Board of Prince Edward County, Virginia -- this is an important 1951 court case that led to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education case that finally brought down the "separate but equal" Jim Crow laws and apartheid of the U.S. -- this website provides good primary source documents and lesson plans for teaching about the Dorothy Davis case, in which a group of courageous Black students protested the inferior nature of their school.
Doll Cultural Study Had Impact on 'Brown v. Board' -- audio segment from NPR that describes the impact the doll studies conducted by Kenneth and Mamie Clark had on the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism -- website that provides a detailed history of the institutions of slavery and racism in the United States.
PBS Ask the Experts: Are We Ready for a Colorblind Society? -- website discussing the pros and cons of colorblindness.
Dave Chappelle on Inside the Actors Studio -- part of this television episode shows comedian Dave Chappelle discussing issues of African American Vernacular English. (Starts around 47:20.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) -- one of the nation's largest civil rights organizations -- its mission is to promote equality and eliminate prejudice among all people.
Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive -- online resources, including oral histories and manuscripts about the state's civil rights struggle.
African American History through the Arts -- articles and art -- from traditional to contemporary.
African Odyssey -- links to indexes and curriculum-based resources for teaching about the arts and culture of Africa.
Lest We Forget -- a digital history project by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, about the history of and struggle against slavery.
The Internet African American History Challenge -- questions, at different levels of difficulty, about African American history -- take the quizzes yourself and use them as teaching tools.
African American History Site -- another good site with historical information.
African American Historical Museum & Cultural Center of Iowa -- useful information and some good lesson plans and teaching ideas.
Hip Hop: Today's Civil Right's Movement? -- a good radio program about the political nature and power of Hip Hop.
Hip Hop 101: Curriculum Guide -- information about a curricular guide put together by an organzation called Art Sanctuary.
The Hip Hop Education Guidebook: Vol. 1 -- a site where you can order this book full of lesson plan ideas using hip hop.
Educators Use Rap as a Teaching Tool -- a radio broadcast about teachers who are using hip-hop effectively to make connections between contemporary music/poetry and the classics -- scroll to the bottom of the page, click and listen.
The Evolution of Rap Music in the United States -- a good article made available at the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institue website -- includes some lesson plan ideas, too.
Hip Hop Education -- an article about Martha Diaz and her efforts to combine hip hop and filmmaking to teach reading, writing, and more.
H2Ed -- the website of this innovative program and organization that "connects educators, social workers, parents, and youth to use Hip-Hop culture as an effective way to inform, educate, and activate youth" -- started by Marth Diaz and Tricia Wing -- soon they will have lesson plans and more at this website.
The History of Hip Hop -- a brief and useful overview article.
Hip Hop History 101 -- more good articles and links.
A Hip Hop Bibliography -- a good list of books and articles.
Underground Hip Hop: Conflict Honored, Jewels Kicked, and Hope Elevated -- an effective "literary" analysis of some hip-hop for use in the classroom.
Transcending Poetry, Jazz, Rap, and Hip Hop for the Classroom -- a lesson plan.
The Original Hip Hop Lyrics Archive -- a large archive of lyrics to many important hip hop songs.
Urban Think Tank -- a site for the "body of thinkers in the hip hop community" -- interesting articles and links.
Nuttin' But Stringz: Hip Hop Violin -- a radio segment about a pair of Julliard-trained, violin playing African American brothers who are making their own music.
The Hip Hop Violin and String Quartets of Haitian American Composer, Daniel Bernard Roumain -- a radio segment about Roumain and his hip hop compositions -- includes audio clips of his work, as performed by the Lark String Quartet.
Exploring African Hip Hop -- a radio review of CD's by two African hip hop groups whose music "embodies ways that Africans are debating their cultural identity through music."
Rokia Traore, Zap Mama and Erykah Badu -- an interview with Rokia Traore, an incredible singer from Mali -- the segment about polyphony is an excellent musical example of a deep African and African American cultural value.
National Public Radio's Website about Jazz -- includes historical material, audio clips, and more.
Intersections: August Wilson, Writing to the Blues -- a National Public Radio site and program about Pulitzer Prize winner August Wilson who has spent more than 20 years writing a cycle of plays that chronicle black life in 20th-century America, decade by decade. Wilson says he first discovered the language of the black experience in Bessie Smith's blues.
Let the Good Times Roll -- a radio program of excellent and insightful programs presenting a history of rhythm and blues -- many programs and lots of music and valuable information and perspective.
Claude Williams: Biography -- the life story of a great African American jazz/swing violinist and guitar player who received the National Endowment of the Arts Heritage Award.
A Jazz Profile of Claude Williams -- a radio program about Claude Williams, a great African American jazz/swing violinist and guitar player.
The Etta Baker Project -- The mission of the Etta Baker Project is to promote and preserve the rich musical legacy of Etta Baker. The Etta Baker Project web site provides information and links to articles, audio, video recordings, and guitar tab for those who want to delve more deeply into Etta Baker’s musical expression and contribution.
Jazz Party Video of Stuff Smith -- a YouTube video of Stuff Smith, one of the all-time great jazz violinists.
Black Violin Link -- an excellent source of information and websites about Black violinists, composers, and more -- jazz, classical, and other forms of music represented -- did you know Frederick Douglass, the great orator and activist, played violin?
Black History and Classical Music -- a great website devoted to composers of African descent -- includes samples to listen to and lots of good links.
Classical Music Recordings of Black Composers -- lots of good information about African American composers.
Composers of African Descent -- more good information about composers of African descent.
Blackbaseball.com's Negro Baseball League -- history and memorabilia
Beyond the Playing Field - Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate -- Jackie Robinson not only broke the "color barrier" in major league baseball, but he was a life-long civil rights activist. This site provides some great primary source materials and lesson plans about this important aspect of Jackie Robinson's life and character.
Black History Month -- activities and information to complement classroom topics.
Black Facts Online -- an online searchable database of facts about Black history.
Kwanzaa Information Center -- good information and materials about this important annual and international celebration of people of African descent.
The Official Kwanzaa Website -- site by the founder of Kwanzaa.
Kwanzaa On the Net -- lots of good explanatory information and materials in support of the celebration of Kwanzaa.
Step Afrika -- a dance group that celebrates stepping, "an art form born at African American fraternities and based in Afriacn traditions."
The Official Website of Malcolm X -- good biographical material, quotes, and much more.
School Shootings and White Denial -- an internet article by Tim Wise, "School Shootings and White Denial" has generated valuable discussion of issues of race and racist stereotypes -- you will find his article and more at this site.
Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia -- an online museum of racist objects that are powerful primary sources in helping educate about the depth, extent, and nature of racism in the U.S.
Stereotypes of African Americans -- a Wikipedia discussion of the many ways in which negative stereotypes of African Americans have been presented and reinforced, both historically and in the present.
Racial Stereotypes in the Media -- a good article presenting and discussing the damaging effects of racial stereotypes presented in the media.
Miss Representin': A Historical Analysis of the Images of African American Women in Situation Comedies -- a good 2006 article with lots of useful history, concepts, data, and examples.
The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America -- a good book from 2001, by Robert Entman & Andrew Rojecki, almost all of which is available here online -- the book presents a critical analysis of stereotypes and how they reinforce White assumptions about and reactions to African Americans.
From Hostility to Reverence: 100 Years of African-American Imagery in Games -- an article about the history of racist imagery in children's games.
Black Males and Images in the Media -- reflection on an art exhibit, "African-American Representation of Masculinity" -- working to move beyond stereotypes.
Representation of the Black Male in Film -- a good article about this important issue -- includes history and current analysis.
The Slave Side of Sunday -- an article about a book in which pro football is criticized for its racist treatment of players.
The Anti-Racist Alliance -- an organization committed to bringing "anti-racist structural power analysis to social service education and practice." They "move beyond a focus on the symptoms of racism to an understanding of what racism is, where it comes from, how it functions, why it persists and how it can be undone."
Black Issues in Higher Education -- the nation's only magazine dedicated exclusively to minority issues in higher education. Articles are not strictly related to African American issues in education, but also cover issues faced by Native Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic American, women, and people with disabilities.
Becoming an Anti-Racist White Ally: How a White Affinity Group Can Help -- a 2009 article about a "white ally" group and how it supported a group of white educators in becoming more anti-racist in their work and lives.
Center for the Study of White American Culture -- the homepage for this organization that encourages whites to better understand their own cultures and their role in helping create a fair and just multicultural society.
Whiteness Studies: Deconstructing (the) Race -- a website about whiteness studies as an "attempt to trace the economic and political history behind the invention of 'whiteness,' to attack the privileges given to so-called 'whites,' and to analyze the cultural practices (in art, music, literature, and popular media) that create and perpetuate notions of 'whiteness.'"
Whiteness Studies and the Multicultural Literature Classroom -- an article about the value of including whiteness studies in a multicultural approach to literature.
Teaching about Whiteness -- a set of ideas and activities for teaching about whiteness as a racial and cultural category -- especially useful when teaching about issues of race and racism.
African American Images in Picture Books -- a bibliography of children's books.
Sojourn's Afro Page Review -- a very rich collection of links on many topics, including the arts, parenting, the student experience, and much more -- highly recommended..
The Tangled Roots Project-- historical information about the shared roots of African Americans and Irish Americans.
The Identity Development of Multiracial Youth -- a 1998 digest about some important issues and considerations concerning the experiences of interracial youth.
The Schooling of Multiracial Youth -- a 1998 digest about what educators can and should do to address the needs of interracial youth in schools.
Seeing Black -- a "funky, alternative site for black reviews, opinions, and voice" -- good articles on a range of topics and some good links to other interesting sites.
Black Press USA -- an "independent source of news for the African American community" -- news items that come from a wire service made up exclusively of black journalists and press outlets -- also includes links to local black press websites.
Black Commentator -- an online publication that offers commentary and analysis on issues facing the black community -- smart commentary on important social and political issues.
The Black Stripe -- "news, information, and culture affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered people of African descent."
Black Parenting Today -- a magazine whose mission is to "share information about issues of importance to parents and guardians of African American children, and those who agree that responsible parenting is key to strengthening the black community and securing our future."
The Michigan Citizen -- a newspaper published in Highland Park, MI that is written primarily for African Americans and covers a variety of topics including issues of education.
The Indianapolis Recorder -- a weekly newspaper that is "preparing a conscious community today and beyond" -- it started in 1897 and focused initially on local news -- it has since expanded and has been called an "advocate for and reporter of the Black community" by historian Richard Pierce.
Racism -- No Way: Recognizing Racism in Schools -- this is an Australian website with articles on racism.
Why the Confederate Flag is a RACIST Symbol -- this site argues for that the Confederate flag is a racist symbol and has no place in society.
Of White Robes and Midnight Fright: Why I'm Offended by the Confederate Flag -- a chilling personal account of why the Confederate flag offends and should not be accepted as a symbol of heritage.
Seeing Red Over Speech -- this site explores whether the term redneck is a racist word and creates ill will.
African American Health Issues -- a good website with links and resources.
Closing the Health Gap -- "an educational campaign designed to help make good health an important issue among racial and ethnic minority populations who are affected by serious diseases and health conditions at far greater rates than other Americans."
The "Colorblind" Attack on Your Health -- an online article from the magazine, Colorlines, about the racial disparities in healthcare and medical treatment and services.
Office of Minority and Multicultural Health -- a website by the New Jersey Dept. of Health with useful information about cultural competency in providing health services to diverse populations.
Some Good Books & Articles
Alim, H. 2007. Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education, and Social Change. Teachers College Press.
Alland, A. 2002. Race in Mind: Race, IQ, and Other Racisms. Palgrave/Macmillan.
Arboleda, T. 1998. In the Shadow of Race: Growing Up as a Multiethnic, Multiracial American. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Artiles, A. & Trent, S. 1994. Overrepresentation of Minority Students in Special Education: A Continuing Debate. Journal of Special Education, 27: 410-437.
Artiles, A., Harry, B., Reschly, D. & Chinn, P. 2001. Over-Identification of Students of Color in Special Education: A Critical Overview. Monarch Center, University of Illinois Chicago.
Bakari, R. 2003. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching African american Students. Urban Education, 38(6): 640-654.
Bell, D. 1992. Faces at the Bottom of the Well. Basic Books.
Bigelow, B. et al., (Ed.) 1994. Rethinking our Classrooms: Teaching for Equity and Justice. Rethinking Schools. Rethinking Schools.
Bigelow, B. et al., (Ed.) 2001. Rethinking Our Classrooms: Teaching for Equity and Justice, Volume 2. Rethinking Schools.
Bolgatz, J. 2005. Talking Race in the Classroom. Teachers College Press.
Bonilla-Silva, E. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Rowman and Littlefield.
Bowen, W. and Bok, D. 1998. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton Univ. Press.
Boyd, H. & Allen, R. 1995. Brotherman: The Odyssey of Black Men in America -- An Anthology. Ballantine.
Boyd, T. 2003. The New H.N.I.C.: The Death of Civil Rights and the Reign of Hip Hop. New York Univ. Press.
Braithwaite, R. &Taylor, S. (Eds.) 2001. Health Issues in the Black Community. Jossey-Bass.
Brown, M. et al. 2003. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. University of California Press.
Byrd, A. and Tharps, L. 2001. Hair Story: Untangling the Roots of Black Hair in America. St. Martin Press.
Carbado, D. et al., 2002. Black Like Us: A Century of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual African American Fiction. Cleis Press.
Carr, L. 1997. "Color-Blind" Racism. Sage.
Carter, D. 2008. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology Among Black Achievers. Harvard Educational Review, 78(3).
Champion, T. 2003. Understanding Storytelling Among African American Children: A Journey from Africa to America. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Chideya, F. 1995. Don't Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural Misinformation about African Americans. Plume/Penguin.
Chideya, F. 1999. The Color of Our Future: Race for the 21st Century. Quill.
Chuck D, and Jah, Y. 1997. Fight the Power: Rap, Race, and Reality. Delta Books.
Collier-Thomas, B. & Franklin, V. P. 2001. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights - Black Power Movement. New York University Press.
Comer, J. & Poussaint, A. 1992. Raising Black Children. Plume/Penguin Books.
Conchas, G. 2006. The Color of Success: Race and High Achieving Urban Youth. Teachers College Press.
Connor, D. 2006. Michael's Story: “I Get Into So Much Trouble Just by Walking”: Narrative Knowing and Life at the Intersections of Learning Disability, Race, and Class. Equity & Excellence in Education, 39(2): 154-165.
Cose, E. 1995. The Rage of a Privileged Class: Why Are Middle Class Blacks Angry? Harper.
Cose, E. 2002. The Envy of the World: On Being a Black Man in America. Washington Square Press.
Delpit, L. 1995. Other People's Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. The New Press.
Delpit, L. & Dowdy, J. (Eds) 2002. The Skin that We Speak: Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom. New Press.
Derman Sparks, L. 1997. Teaching/Learning Anti-Racism. Teachers College Press.
Dimitriades, G. 2001. Performing Identity/Performing Culture: Hip-Hop as Text, Pedagogy, and Lived Practice. Peter Lang Publishing.
Donaldson, K. 1996. Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Praeger.
Du Bois, W.E.B. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk. A.C. McClurg.
Dyson, A. H. 2003. The Brothers and Sisters Learn to Write: Popular Literacies in Childhood and School Cultures. Teachers College Press.
Dyson, M. 1996. Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to Black Culture. Oxford.
Dyson, M. 1996. Race Rules: Navigating the Color Line. Vintage.
Epstein, T. 1998. Deconstructing Differences in African-American and European-American Adolescents' Perspectives on U.S. History. Curriculum Inquiry, 28(4): 397-423.
Epstein, T. 2000. Adolescents' Perspective on Racial diversity in United States History: Case Studies from an Urban Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 37: 185-214.
Epstein, T. 2009. Interpreting National History: Race, Identity, and Pedagogy in Classrooms and Communities. Routledge.
Evans-Winters, V. 2005. Teaching Black Girls: Resiliency in Urban Classrooms. Peter Lang.
Feagin, J, & McKinney, K. 2003. The Many Costs of Racism. Rowman& Littlefield.
Ford, D. 1996. Reversing Underachievement among Gifted Black Students: Promising Practices.
Fordham, S. & Ogbu, J. 1986. Black Students' School Success: Coping with the Burden of "Acting White." Urban Review, 18: 176-206.
Fordham, S. 1996. Blacked Out: Dilemmas of Race, Identity, and Success at Capital High. Chicago University Press.
Foster, M. 1997. Black Teachers on Teaching. The New Press.
Foster, M. & Peele, T. 1999. Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts, in Polite, V. & Davis, J. (Eds.) African American Males in School and Society: Practices & Policies for Effective Education. Teachers College Press.
Fouche, R. 2005. Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fricke, J. & Ahearn, C. 2002. Yes Yes Y'all: Oral History of Hip-Hop's First Decade. Persues Press.
Garrod, A. et. al. 1999. Souls Looking Back: Life Stories of Growing Up Black. Routledge.
Gaskin, P. 1999. What Are You? Voices of Mixed Race Young People. Henry Holt.
Gay, G. 2000. Culturally Responsive Teaching. Teachers College Press.
Gentry, A. 1994. Learning to Survive: Black Youth Look for Education and Hope.
George, Nelson. 1998. Hip-Hop America. Viking.
Giddings, G. 2001. Infusions of Afrocentric Content into the School Curriculum. Toward an Effective Movement. Journal of Black Studies, 31: 462-482.
Ginwright, S. 2004. Black in School: Afrocentric Reform, Urban Youth, and the Promise of Hip-Hop Culture. Teachers College Press.
Ginwright, S. 2009. Black Youth Rising: Activism and Radical Healing in Urban America. Teachers College Press.
Gold, B. 2007. Still Separate and Unequal: Segregation and the Future of Urban School Reform. Teachers College Press.
Golden, M. 2004. Don’t Play in the Sun: One Woman’s Journey Through the Color Complex. Doubleday.
Hacker, A. 1992. Two Nations: Black & White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. Scribners
Hale, J. 1986. Black Children: Their Roots, Culture and Learning Styles. Johns Hopkins Univeristy Press.
Hale, J. 1994. Unbank the Fire: Visions for the Education of African American Children. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
Hale, J. & Franklin, V. 2001. Learning While Black: Creating Educational Excellence for African American Children. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
Harris, J., Kamhi, A., & Pollack, K. (Eds.) 2001. Literacy in African American Communities. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Harry, B. and Klingner, J. 2006. Why Are So Many Minority Students in Special Education? Understanding Race and Disability in Schools. Teachers College Press.
hooks, b. 1992. Black Looks: Race and Representation. South End Press.
Hopkins, R. 1997. Educating Black Males: Critical Lessons in Schooling, Community and Power. SUNY Press.
Howard, T. 2001. Telling Their side of the Story:African American Students' Perceptions of Culturally Relevant Teaching. The Urban Review, 33(2), 131-149.
Howard, T. 2010. Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap in America's Classrooms. Teachers College Press.
Hughes, S. & Berry, T. (Ed.) 2011. The Evolving Significance of Race: Living, Learning, and Teaching. Peter Lang.
Irvine, J. 2002. In Search of Wholeness: African American Teachers and Their Culturally Specific Classroom Practices. Palgrave.
Jaspin, E. 2007. Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America. basic Books.
Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.) 1998. The Black-White Test-Score Gap.The Brookings Institute.
Kailin, J. 1999. How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in "Liberal" Lakeview. Teachers College Record, 100(4): 724-50.
Kailin, J. 2002. Antiracist Education: From Theory to Practice. Rowman and Littlefield.
Keyes, C. 2002. Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Univ. of Illinois Press.
Khmelkov, V. & Hallinan, M. 1999. Organizational Effects on Race Relations in Schools. Journal of Social Issues, 55(4): 627-645.
Kitwana, B. 2002. The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture. Basic Books.
Krims, A. 2000. Rap Music and the Poetics of Identity. Cambrdige Univ. Press.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Countering the Conspiracy to Destroy Black Boys. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Critical Issues in Educating African American Youth (A Talk With Jawanza). African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Developing Positive Self-Images and Discipline in Black Children. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Motivating and Preparing Black Youth for Success. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 2002. Black Students/Middle Class Teachers. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. & Hawkins, L. 1997. Motivating and Preparing Black Youth for Success. African American Images.
Ladson-Billings, G. 1994. The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. Jossey-Bass.
Ladson-Billings, G. 1998. From Soweto to the South Bronx: African Americans and colonial education in the United States. In C. Torres and T. Mitchell (Eds.) Sociology of Education: Emerging Perspectives. SUNY Press.
Ladson-Billings, G. 2001. Crossing Over to Canaan: The Journey of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms. Jossey-Bass.
Landsman, J. 2001. A White Teacher Talks About Race. Scarecrow Press.
Landsman, J. & Lewis, C. (Ed.) 2006. White Teachers/Diverse Classrooms. Stylus Press.
Lawrence, S. & Bunche, T. 1996. Feeling and Dealing: Teaching White Students about Racial Privilege. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(5): 531-542.
Lee, E. et al., 1998. Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multiculutral Education. Network of Educators on the Americas.
Lewis, A. 2003. Race In the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color Line in Classrooms and Communities. Rutgers Univ. Press.
Lipsitz, G. 1998. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Temple University Press.
Lomotey, K. 1990. Going to School, The African American Experience. SUNY Press.
Lopez, N. 2003. Hopeful Girls, Troubled Boys: Race and Gender Disparity in Urban Education. Routledge.
Losen, D. and Orfield, G. 2002. Racial Inequity and Special Education. Harvard Education Press.
Mahiri, J. 1998. Shooting for Excellence: African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools. Teachers College Press.
Majors, R. (Ed.) 2001. Educating Our Black Children: New Directions and Radical Approaches. Routledge/Falmer.
Manning, K. 1985. Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just. Oxford Univ Press.
Marable, M. 2000. How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America. South End Press.
McCall, N. 1994. Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Man in America. Vintage.
McDuffie, T. & George, R. 2009. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents. The Journal of Negro Education, 78(2): 114-22.
Moody, V. 2004. Sociocultural Orientations and the Mathematical Success of African American Students. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(3): 135-147.
Morris, V. & Morris, C. 2000. Creating Caring and Nurturing Educational Environments for African American Children. Bergin and Garvey/Greenwood Publishing.
Morris, V. & Morris, C. 2002. The Price They Paid: Desegregation in an African American Community. Teachers College Press.
Moses, M. 2002. Embracing Race: Why We Need Race-Conscious Education Policy. Teachers College Press.
Moses, R. & Cobb, C. 2001. Radical Equations: Civil Right from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.
Murrell, P. 2002. African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing Schools of Achievement for African American Children. State Univ of New York Press.
Noguera, P & Wing, J. (Eds.). 2006. Unfinished Business: Closing the Racial Achievement Gap in Our Schools. Jossey-Bass.
Noguera, P. 2009. The Trouble With Black Boys: And Other Reflections on Race, Equity, and the Future of Public Education. Jossey-Bass.
Obidah, J. & Teel, K. 2001. Because of the Kids: Facing Racial and Cultural Differences in Schools. Teachers College Press.
Ogbu, J. 1974. The Next Generation: An Ethnography of Education in an Urban Neighborhood. Academic Press.
Ogbu, J. 1982. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 13(4): 290-307.
Ogbu, J. 1999. Beyond Language: Ebonics, Proper English, and Identity in a Black-American Speech Community. American Educational Research Journal, 36(2): 147-184.
Orfield, G., Eaton, S. & Jones, E. 1997. Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown V. Board of Education. New Press.
Orfield, G. & Losen, D. (Eds.) 2002. Racial Inequity in Special Education. Harvard University Press.
Paley, V. 1989. White Teacher. Harvard University Press.
Paley, V. 1995. Kwanzaa and Me: A Teacher's Story. Harvard University Press.
Patillo-Coy, M. 1999. Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril Among the Black Middle Class. University of Chicago Press.
Perry, M. 2000. Walking the Color Line: The Art and Practice of Anti-Racist Teaching. Teachers College Press.
Perry, T. (Ed.) 1996. Teaching Malcolm X. Routledge.
Perry, T. & Delpit, L. 1998. The Real Ebonics Debate: Power, Language, and the Education of African-American Children. Beacon.
Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. 2003. Young, Gifted and Black: Promoting High Achievement among African-American Students. Beacon Press.
Pollock, M. 2004. Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School. Princeton University Press.
Pollock, M. (Ed.) 2008. Everyday Anti-Racism: Getting Real About Race in School. The New Press.
Polite, V. & Davis, J. (Eds.) 1999. African American Males in School and Society: Practices & Policies for Effective Education. Teachers College Press.
Richeson, J. & Nussbaum, R. 2004. The Impact of Multiculturalism Versus Color-Blindness on Racial Bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40: 417-423.
Robbins, C. 2005. Zero Tolerance and the Politics of Racial Injustice. The Journal Negro Education, 74: 2-17.
Rose, T. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Wesleyan University Press.
Russell, M. 2005. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential: African American Students and the Science Pipeline. Negro Educational Review, 56(2/3).
Rowley, S., et al., 1998. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African American College and High School Students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3): 715-724.
Sampson, D. & Garrison-Wade, D. 2011. Cultural Vibrancy: Exploring the Preferences of African American Children Toward Culturally Relevant and Non-Culturally Relevant Lessons. Urban Review, 43(2): 279-309.
Shipler, D. 1997. A Country of Strangers: Black and White in America. Vintage.
Smitherman, G. 1991. Talking and Testifyin: Black English and the Black Experience. In Reginald Jones (Ed.) Black Psychology. Cobb & Henry.
Steinhorn, L.& Diggs-Brown, B. 2000. By the Color of Our Skin: The Illusion of Integration and the Reality of Race.
Street, P. 2005. Segregated Schools: Educational Apartheid in Post-Civil Rights America. Routledge.
Suskind, R. 1998. A Hope in the Unseen: An American Odyssey from the Inner City to the Ivy League. Broadway.
Tatum, A. 2005. Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males: Closing the Achievement Gap. Stenhouse Publishers.
Tatum, A. 2006. Engaging African American Males in Reading. Educational Leadership, February.
Tatum, B. 1998. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations About Race. Basic Books.
Teel, K. & Obidah, J. 2008. Building Racial and Cultural Competence in the Classroom: Strategies from Urban Educators. Teachers College Press.
Thompson, G. 2002. African American Teens Discuss Their Schooling Experiences. Greenwood Press.
Thompson, G. 2003. What African American Parents Want Educators to Know. Greenwood Press.
Thompson, G. 2004. Through Ebony Eyes: What Teachers Need to Know But Are Afraid to Ask About African American Students. Jossey-Bass.
Van Ausdale, D. 2001. The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism. Rowman & Littlefield.
Washington, H. 2007. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Doubleday.
Watkins, C. 2005. Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement. Beacon Press.
Watkins, W., Lewis, J. & Chou V. Eds.) 2001. Race and Education: The Roles of History and Society in Educating African American Students. Allyn & Bacon.
Welch, O. 1997. Standing Outside on the Inside: Black Adolescents & the Construction of Academic Identity. SUNY Press.
Wells, A. et al. 2004. How Desegregation Changed Us: The Effects of Racially Mixed Schools on Students and Society. Final Report from the Understanding Race and Education Study. Teachers College: Columbia University.
West, C. 2001. Race Matters. Vintage.
Wheeler, R. 2008. Becoming Adept at Code-Switching: Providing Urban African American Students With Tools of Success. Educational Leadership, April, 54-58.
Williams, G. 1995. Life on the Color Line: The True Story of a White Boy Who Discovered He was Black. Plume/Penguin.
Willie, S. 2003. Acting Black: College, Identity, and the Performance of Race. Routledge.
Wise, T. 2005. White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son. Soft Skull Press.
Wynne, K. 2000. "This Ain't No B-Boy: Women in Hip-Hop. Clamor, April May, p. 33-37.
Yenika-Agbow, V. & Napoli, M. (Ed.) 2011. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom. Peter Lang.
Zehr. M. 2010. School Discipline Inequities Become a Federal Priority
Films and Videos
Eyes on the Prize, 1987 -- a powerful, award-winning series of documentary films about the Civil Rights struggle, 1954-1965.
Ethnic Notions, 1987 -- traces deeply rooted stereotypes.
Color Adjustment, 1991 -- a history of race relations in the U.S. as revealed in prime time television.
The Color of Fear, 1994 -- a very powerful documentary about a diverse group of American men discussing racism.
Matters of Race, 2000 -- a four part video series that explores the history, legacy, present, and future of issues of race and racism in the U.S.
Two Towns of Jasper -- a powerful film about black and white perspectives in Jasper, Texas, where, in 1998, an African American man, James Byrd, was dragged to death behind a truck by three white men. A white film crew covered the trials as it was seen by whites, and a black crew explored the perceptions of African-Americans. The result is an explicit and troubling portrait of race in America.
The Intolerable Burden, 2003 -- "One of the best video histories of the desegregation era ever produced." -- a film about a Black family that in 1965 enrolled eight of their children in a previously all white school in Drew, Mississippi.
The House We Live In, 2003 -- an excellent 3-part series exploring the history of race perceptions and relations in the U.S. -- documents ways in which institutions create and reinforce race and racism.
Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes -- a documentary that explores the hyper-masculinity, sexism, and homophobia of much commercial hip hop, putting this issue in a larger context and raising important questions about the corporate structures and practices that foster and promote this approach to hip-hop.