Robert Klee

Retired Associate Professor, Philosophy and Religion



Editor, Scientific Inquiry: Readings in the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, 1999

Introduction to the Philosophy of Science: Cutting Nature at Its Seams, Oxford University Press, 1997


The Importance of Being Sufficiently Realistic: A Reply to Milan Ćirković,” International Journal of Astrobiology, published online January 18, 2018 at

"Human Expunction," International Journal of Astrobiology 16 (October 2017): 379-88.

“Physical Scale Effects and Philosophical Thought Experiments,” Metaphilosophy 39 No. 1 (January 2008): 89-104. 

“Why Some Delusions Are Necessarily Inexplicable Beliefs,” Philosophy,Psychiatry & Psychology 11 (March 2004): 25-34.

“Delusional Content and the Public Nature of Meaning: Reply to the other Contributors,” Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology 11 (March 2004): 95-99.

“Feminist Epistemology as Folk Psychology,” in Scrutinizing Feminist Epistemology, edited by Cassandra Pinnick, Noretta Koertge, and Robert Almeder, Rutgers University Press, 2003, pp. 31-44.

“The Revenge of Pythagoras: How a Mathematical Sharp Practice Undermines the Contemporary Design Argument in Astrophysical Cosmology,” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (September 2002): 331-354.

“Problems with Formal Models of Epistemic Entrenchment as Applied to Scientific Theories," Synthese 122 (March 2000): 313-320

“The Phrenetic Calculus: A Logician's View of Disordered Logical Thinking in Schizophrenia,” Behavior and Philosophy 21 (Spring/Summer 1993): 49-61

“In Defense of the Quine-Duhem Thesis: A Reply to Greenwood,” Philosophy of Science 59 (September 1992): 487-491

“Anomalous Monism, Ceteris Paribus, and Psychological Explanation,” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 43 (September 1992): 389-403

“Micro-Determinism and Concepts of Emergence,” Philosophy of Science 51 (March 1984): 44-63


“Successful Seeing as an Unhappy Substitute for Seeing Success,” review of Robert Hudson’s Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation (Oxford University Press 2014) Philosophy of Science 82 (2015): 306-312  

"The Alleged Importance of Being Tough, Really Tough: a review essay on Christina Hoff Sommers and Sally Satel's, One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture Is Eroding Self-Reliance," (2005, St. Martin's Press, New York) Science & Education 17 (2008): 1157-1174

“Watch Out for Those Decision Vectors,” review of Miriam Solomon’s Social Empiricism (MIT Press 2002) Metascience, 12 (2): 249-252

“Still Muddled After All These Years,” review of Bruno Latour’s Pandora’s Hope (Harvard University Press 1999), Social Epistemology, 15 (October-December 2001): 399-404


Logic Revisited: Intermediate Symbolic Logic with Trees, textbook, fifth draft