Zenon Wasyliw

Professor, History

Title

USSR

The USSR:  History and Legacies

Fall 2018

HIST 22200-01

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:10-2:25

Ithaca College

Zenon V. Wasyliw

Professor, Department of History and

Coordinator, Social Studies Teacher Education                                                                                                                                                                      

Muller 427, 274-1587, wasyliw@ithaca.edu

Tuesday 2:30-3:30; Wednesday 12:00-1:30; Thursday 3:00-4:00

By appointment other times and days

http://faculty.ithaca.edu/wasyliw                                                       

INTRODUCTION

The USSR heavily influenced global history through the introduction of a revolutionary and competing expansive world system with an emphasis on identities based upon economic status and social class. These and other Soviet internal and external developments had a great and often tragic impact on the twentieth century.  The Soviet historical legacy remains alive and disputed after the fall of the USSR and communism in 1991 and into the twenty first century. Russia under Putin re-asserts its claim to regional and global power through reclaiming the former Soviet space within a Eurasian context and positive appraisal of the Soviet past. Ukraine and other former Soviet republics challenge the Russian historical paradigm and geopolitical goals with their own national historical narratives more critical of the Soviet past and aligned with European values and integration.

This course is a survey of Soviet history.  We begin with pre-revolutionary conditions at the turn of the century, appraise the 1917 revolutions and then proceed through the varied stages, policies, leaders, and both their internal and global impact through 1991 and beyond as outlined in the topics section of this syllabus.  Stalin and Stalinism receive special attention. 

An interdisciplinary approach is the foundation of analysis and critical appraisal.  Political, intellectual, social, cultural, economic and other modes of evaluation are implemented.  The study of Soviet history might be complex yet it is also extremely fascinating.  We will engage in an interesting journey and evaluation of the Soviet past and its influence on the present and future.

BOOKS            

The following books are required for the course and may be purchased at the college bookstore.

Dolot, Miron.  Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (Norton Publishing))

Gessen, Masha and Misha Friedman. Never Remember. Searching for Stalin’s Gulags in Putin’s Russia (Columbia Global Reports)

Husband, William B.  The Human Tradition in Modern Russia (Rowman)

Marples, David.  Russia in the Twentieth Century (Longman)

Yekelchyk, Serhy. The Conflict in Ukraine. What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford University Press)

Supplementary Sources

 “Seventeen Moments in Soviet History” – http://soviethistory.msu.edu/

This impressive website contains a variety of valuable resources.  Specific assignments from this site are listed in the “Topics and Reading Assignments” section of this syllabus. 

Tips for writing history papers – Cornell University

http://www.arts.cornell.edu/prh3/257/classmats/papertip.html

Chicago Manual of Style – citation guide

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

Additional citation styles - https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/

Supplemental primary sources and handouts will also be distributed and additional relevant library holdings will be referenced. 

Please review valuable relevant links at the end of this syllabus  

TOPICS AND READING ASSIGNMENTS

The syllabus outline, topics and assignments are subject to change depending on student interest and contemporary developments or issues in the countries of the former USSR

Dates:

30 Aug., 4 and 6 September Week 1 and 2 – The power and legacy of imagined history narratives and memory

An introduction to major themes, issues and comparative historical narratives and the use of memory and imagined pasts in creating legacies for contemporary identities.

A visual overview of the Soviet past.

The Tsarist State - Late Imperial Russia and the path to revolution. Competing ideologies and the realities of life

Nicholas II – The Last Tsar of the Russian Empire –

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OnTLEYbkds

Rasputin as symbol of Tsarist corruption – Ra Ra Rasputin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmkySNDX4dU

 Primary sources - http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html

Revolutionaries and prelude to revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1905

Background on Marx and Marxism

Lenin – “What is to be Done” http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1902lenin.asp

Assignment for Weeks 1 and 2: Marples, Russia in the Twentieth Century, Chapters 1 and 2

Husband, The Human Tradition in Modern Russia, Chapters 1-3

The Revolutions of 1917

The February Revolution, Dual Power in 1917: Constituent Assembly or “All Power to the Soviets!”

Assignment for Week 3:

The Great October Socialist Revolution Bolshevik victory and the first ever communist state in world history

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – a. link to the year 1917 and continue linking toward theme, topics and primary sources.  For example – Bolsheviks Seize Power http://soviethistory.msu.edu/1917-2/bolsheviks-seize-power/

Husband readings 1-3 for discussion

11 and 13 Sept.  Week 3.  One Hundred Years: Legacy of the October Revolution

Civil War! Reds vs. Whites

Competing Historical Interpretations on the October Revolution of 1917. The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921, Non-Russian Nationalities and Nationalism and War Communism - Historiographical Debates on the Creation and Evolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR

An overview of the Soviet legacy – Complete History of the Soviet Union, Arranged to the Melody of Tetris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWTFG3J1CP8

Assignment for week 3: Marples, Chapter 2

Assignment for week 4: and Marples, Chapter 4    

Husband readings 4-9 for discussion over weeks 4 and 5             

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   - 1921

18 and 20 Sept. Week 4The 1920s

The Era of the New Economic Policy: Retreat and Rebuilding, 1921-1928.

Culture and Society during the NEP: the Transformation of Everyday Life and Values - Culture and Cultural Revolution. 

Discussion of Husband readings

Assignment for week 5: Marples, Chapter 3

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1924

Bean, “Nikolai Bukharin and the New Economic Policy” http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_02_1_bean.pdf

Sakai - Lenin biography

25 and 27 Sept. Week 5The Lenin Legacy

The Death of Lenin: “Long Live Lenin” and the Cult of Lenin - Socialism in One Country and the New Economic Policy.

Lenin biography and legacy

Continue discussion of Husband articles and discuss Bean article

Assignment for week 6: On Sakai -McCauley, Stalin and Stalinism,

Marples, Chapters 3 and 4  

First Examination take-home                       

2 and 4 Oct. Week 6. Who will succeed Lenin? The last debates and the legacy of counterfactual history

Leadership, Internal Power Struggles and the Struggle for Succession - The Stalin-Trotsky Controversy and Competing Policy Debates

Assignment for weeks 7 and 8: Marples, Chapters 3 and 4  

http://academic.shu.edu/russianhistory/index.php/Stalin_on_Rapid_Industrialization

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1924, 1929                                 

9, 11, and 16 Oct. Week 7 and 8. Stalin, Stalinism and the Stalinist Revolution

The Stalin Revolution. Collectivization, Industrialization and the Five Year Plan - State Sponsored Economic Modernization and the Eventual Victory over Capitalism 

Assignment for weeks 8 and 9: Marples, Chapter 4

HBO original movie starring Robert Duvall as Joseph Stalin (1992) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A57gNcOdduo

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1929, 1934

SPRING BREAK – 18-19 Oct.

Finish reading and write a one page critique of Dolot, Execution by Hunger http://www.holodomor.ca/ and conceptualize and work on special project

23 and 25 Oct. Week 9Holodomor: the Ukrainian Famine and Rapid Industrialization

Discussion and Analysis of the Dolot book and related documents on industrialization, political purges and the gulag.  Culture and Society in the Socialist Motherland

Assignment for next week: Online and Sakai sources on Stalin

The Dolot Critique is due

Begin reading the Gessen/Friedman book

30 Oct. and 1 Nov.  Week 10. Toward a Communist Utopia? The Party and the Great Purge

The Path toward a Communist Utopia – Goals, Problems, Solutions and Results.  The Structure of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – the CPSU

Stalin “Cleanses” the Party and State,” The Assassination of Kirov,

the Great Purges and the Building of  Socialism through Forced Labor in the Siberian Gulag.

Stakhanovite Glory and the Workers’ Paradise - Historical Interpretations of Stalinism and the

Stalinist Purges

Stalin biography and legacy

Second Examination take-home

Assignment for week 11: Marples, Chapters 4 and 5

Finish reading the Gessen/Friedman book Never Remember and write a one page critique

Online documents on Stalin and Stalinism 

Stalin: Inside the Terror -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIzApqzlP3Q                             

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1934, 1936, 1939

6 and 8 Nov. Week 11. The Great War, shifting alliances and the legacy of the Second World War. The Gulag survives.  

A political and military history of Second World War

Discussion of Never Remember

Assignment for week 12: Marples, Chapter 5

Husband, Chapter 11                                 

Sakai and online related documents

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/ – 1934, 1936, 1939

Never Remember one page critique is due

Second Examination is due

13 and 15 Nov.  Week 12. High Stalinism, the Cold War, the death of Stalin and the Stalin Legacy.  Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization

Stalin and the Stalin cult. The Cold War between the USSR and USA as competing superpowers and the global expansion of communism - from the Stalin era through the 1980s

Assignment for week 13: Marples, Chapter 6

Khrushchev De-Stalinization Speech - http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.html  

Khrushchev biography handout and legacy for next week

State Anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1977-1991) Red Army Chorus   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sxTbfeYdO0   

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/  – 1947, 1954, 1956, 1961,

Thanksgiving Break 17-25 November

Read Khrushchev handout

Marples, Chapter 6

27 and 29 Nov. Week 13Khrushchev: Corn, Reform and the Cold War: the meaning of “We will bury you!

Khrushchev’s domestic reforms, competition with the U.S. and Cold War challenges – the Hungarian Revolution, Berlin Wall and Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cold War - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9HjvHZfCUI

Nixon vs. Khrushchev – The Kitchen Debate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CvQOuNecy4

Khrushchev goes to Hollywood, but not Disneyland - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufkuEVtNl_Y

Assignment for Week 14, Marples, Chapters 7 and 8

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/  – 1968, 1973, 1980, 1986, 1989

4 and 6 December Week 14. From Stagnation to Glasnost and Perestroika

Brezhnev “Years of Stagnation.” An Appraisal of Stalin’s Successors and the Significance of Gorbachev’s Policy of Glasnost and Perestroika.

Brezhnev and the Cold War - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTUFtlSzMJ0

The Moscow Olympics of 1980 and LA Olympics of 1984

Assignment for Week 15: Yekelchyk, The Conflict in Ukraine and one page analysis

Marples, Chapter 8 and 9

Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR -   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0g6arFbKZ60

11 and 13 December Week 15. The Post-Soviet World: Europe or Eurasia. Legacies and selective memories. Putin, the Ukrainian Euromaidan Revolution and Cyberspace

Why did the Soviet Union Collapse? Comparative Post-Soviet Political Developments - Memory of the Soviet Past through Competing and Conflicting Memories - Human Rights, Civil Society and the Legacy of Perpetrators and Victims

Discussion of Yekelchyk book

Special Project Presentations begin and continue during exam week designated time of –

Tuesday, 18 Dec., 10:30 am-1:00pm

18-22 December Week 16Examination Week - Take-home USSR Final Examination and Special Project final submissions are due by 5:00 Thursday, 20 December

REQUIREMENTS

1.  7.2.2.14 Attendance Policy

Attendance “Students at Ithaca College are expected to attend all classes, and they are responsible for work missed during any absence from class.  At the beginning of each semester, instructors must provide the students in their courses with written guidelines regarding possible grading penalties for failure to attend class. Students should notify their instructors as soon as possible of any anticipated absences. Written documentation that indicates the reason for being absent may be required. These guidelines may vary from course to course but are subject to the following restrictions:” Please carefully read the official Ithaca College attendance policy for detailed elaborations upon “1. In accordance with New York State law, students who miss class due to their religious beliefs shall be excused from class or examinations on that day. 2. Any student who misses class due to a verifiable family or individual health emergency, or to a required appearance in a court of law, shall be excused. 3. A student may be excused for participation in College-authorized co-curricular and extracurricular activities, if, in the instructor's judgment, this does not impair the specific student's or the other students' ability to succeed in the course. http://www.ithaca.edu/hs/depts/theatre/handbook/academics/attendance/

Absences will adversely affect the comprehension of course material and one’s grade.  Students are expected to have read the assigned readings and participate in class discussion.

2.  Each student will complete two interpretive essay examinations and a final comprehensive examination.  All essays are of a take-home format. They are conceptual in nature and test students’ comprehension and analysis of material covered in class and assigned readings.

3.  Each student will write one page analytical assessments of the Dolot and Gessen/Friedman books prior to class discussion of each book.           

4.  USSR and beyond Special Project

The project must be on a subject of intense personal interest related to Soviet, pre- or post-Soviet history. Late Soviet (Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Gorbachev) and post-Soviet topics are encouraged as we cover the early Soviet and Stalinist era in greater detail. Creative and non-conformist topics are especially favored. Similar themed collaboration is encouraged through group projects yet individual projects are also fine.

Format –

1.         A one or two paragraph introduction that includes a brief overview of the topic, why the topic was selected and a thesis statement that answers a larger question or questions and its relation to the course.

2.         The actual presentation may take the form of:

a.)        a 15 minute group presentation with outline handouts for the class

b.)        a video presentation prepared for the class, also with outline handouts

c.)        a poster presentation

d.)        a three to five page cited essay with a brief summary provided for the class

e.)        a speculative futurist scenario through role playing and/or media

f.)        other formats will also be considered

5.  The writing of essays, critiques and papers follows specific criteria and all sources must be properly documented.  Carefully read the Ithaca College Standards of Academic Conduct found at the end of the syllabus and at the following Student Policies link –

http://www.ithaca.edu/policies/vol7/general/070104/  

Documentation needs to follow the Chicago Manual of Style -

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html   

Additional citation styles - https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/  

6.  "In accordance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act, reasonable accommodations will be provided to qualified students with documented disabilities. Students seeking accommodations must register with Student Accessibility Services and provide appropriate documentation before any accommodations can be provided. Please note that accommodations are not retroactive so timely contact with Student Accessibility Services is encouraged."

7. Diminished mental health, including significant stress, mood changes, excessive worry, or problems with eating and/or sleeping can interfere with optimal academic performance. The source of symptoms might be related to your course work; if so, please speak with me. However, problems with relationships, family worries, loss, or a personal struggle or crisis can also contribute to decreased academic performance.

Ithaca College provides no-additional-cost mental health services through the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) to help you manage personal challenges that threaten your personal or academic well-being.

In the event I suspect you need additional support, expect that I will express to you my concerns and the reasons for them. It is not my intent to know the details of what might be troubling you, but simply to let you know I am concerned and that help (e.g., CAPS, ICare, Health Center, Chaplains, etc...), if needed, is available.

Remember, getting help is a smart and courageous thing to do -- for yourself and for your loved ones

8. Title IX is a federal act mandating that educational institutions receiving federal funding must provide sex and gender equity. All students thus have the right to a campus atmosphere free of sexual harassment, sexual violence, and gender discrimination. For reports of sexual assault and general issues, please contact Tiffani Ziemann, Title IX Coordinator

https://www.ithaca.edu/sacl/share/

9. Student Wellness at Ithaca College - https://www.ithaca.edu/sacl/healthpromotion/

10. The syllabus outline, topics and assignments are subject to change.

GRADES

All work must be completed to earn a passing grade!

Assessments

First Examination                                                        20%

Second Examination                                                   20%

Two Book Critiques and special project                     25%

Final Examination                                                       25%

Qualitative Class Participation                                    10%

                                                                                   100%

The above assessments meet the Ithaca College Department of

History Student Learning Outcome Assessment goals –

1. Attain factual knowledge

2. Identify, gather and use primary and secondary sources for historical inquiry

3. Demonstrate skills in communicating thesis-driven arguments based on evidence

Provided by sources, both secondary and primary

4. Demonstrate critical reading skills that recognize and analyze complexity and ambiguity in sources and historical processes

5. Demonstrate capacity for engaged, knowledgeable and competent global citizenship

6. Demonstrate desire and capacity for lifelong learning

VISUAL MEDIA SOURCES

Eight Free Films by Dziga Vertov, Creator of Soviet Avant-Garde Documentaries

http://www.openculture.com/2014/09/eight-free-films-by-dziga-vertov.html  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csMOsZkZjEk   top 20 soviet films

https://www.rbth.com/arts/history/2017/06/27/soviet-censorship-how-did-the-ussr-control-the-public_790892  media 

http://blogs.bu.edu/guidedhistory/russia-and-its-empires/laurel-tisserand/   film

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RtBAa4YCgo   Soviet Montage: Crash Course Film History #8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qBIAi4FZytw   Top 50 Soviet Science Fiction Films

https://film-ua.com/1151-girki-zhniva.html  Ukrainian Film

http://kino-na-xati.com/serialy/shkola-online.html  

https://amazing-ukraine.com/6-novykh-ukrainskykh-istorychnykh-filmiv-iakymy-mozhna-pyshatysia/

LINKS

General Sites

Soviet History: http://soviethistory.msu.edu/ 

History Central: http://vlib.iue.it/history/index.html#vlsearch  

Modern History Sources: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html

http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/modsbook39.asp 

University of Pittsburg Center http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/crees/

University of Michigan Center: http://www.ii.umich.edu/crees 

Russian and East European Sources, Georgetown: http://guides.library.georgetown.edu/russian 

ASEEES: http://aseees.org/ 

Association for the Study of Nationalities: http://nationalities.org 

Harvard Davis Center Russian and Eurasian Studies: http://daviscenter.fas.harvard.edu/ 

Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute:   http://www.huri.harvard.edu/

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies: http://www.ualberta.ca/CIUS/  

Ukrainian: http://www.ukrainianstudies.org 

Ukraine: http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com 

Georgia: http://www.georgiatoday.ge/ 

Qazaqstan (Kazakhstan): http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/53/index-b.html

History

Rasputin: http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html 

Marxism: http://marxists.org/glossary 

Russian Revolution: http://www.barnsdle.demon.co.uk/russ/rusrev.html 

Lenin Mausoleum: http://lenin.ru/index_e.htm 

Historical Documents: http://artsci.shu.edu/reesp/documents  

 https://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Revolution_and_Ukraine_within_USSR_1917-1991

Ukrainian Famine: http://www.holodomor.ca/ 

Memorial: http://www.memo.ru/eng/  suspended by Russian government

Gulag: http://www.gulaghistory.org 

Stalinist Repression: http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/gulag.html 

Holocaust: http://www.ushmm.org 

Cold War: “Cold War International History Project”

http://www.wilsoncenter.org/program/cold-war-international-history-project 

Cold War Studies at Harvard University: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws 

A Resource Guide to the Cold War

http://www.mobileqrcodes.us/mobile/guide-cold-war.html 

Central Eurasia and Caucasus: http://cesww.fas.harvard.edu/ 

Armenia: http://www.armenian-genocide.org 

History of Jews in Russia: http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/ 

Ukrainian Jewish Encounter: http://ukrainianjewishencounter.org/ 

The Jewish Virtual Library: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/europetour.html 

National embassy pages - e.g. Kyrgyzstan http://kgembassy.org   and/or

Country reports and history outlines found on http://news.bbc.co.uk 

Soros Foundation Open Society Foundation: http://www.soros.org 

Peaceful Revolution: http://www.aeinstein.org   

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Content, Critical Thinking and Conceptual Objectives:

1. Situate global historical perspectives to identify and assess pre-revolutionary conditions and ideologies at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their influence on the revolutions of 1917.

2. Appraise the 1917 revolutions and apply competing historical arguments to analyze and decide the role played by the Bolsheviks in the revolutionary process and civil war.

3. Apply a world systems approach defining Marxism in economic, political and social terms as interpreted and applied by Lenin, Stalin and other Soviet leaders. Decide how competing world systems defined the Cold War with special consideration given the US-USSR rivalry

4. Focus on the evolution of identities based upon economic status and social class and Marxist-Leninist social class theory is implemented through specific policies and propaganda.

5. Place into context the non-Russian nationalities and evaluate the historical debates on the creation, evolution and demise of the USSR influenced by nationalities issues.

6. Study and assess social and cultural transformations of everyday life and values through the stages of Soviet state polices – the New Economic Policy, the Stalinist Era, and succeeding policy transitions

7. Compare, contrast and apply competing historical arguments evaluating Stalin’s rise to power, policies and competing legacies

8. Evaluate the theme of power and justice in identifying victims and perpetrators in crimes against humanity and the lasting legacy and historical arguments evaluating these legacies. 

9. Assess the issues, events and historical interpretations leading to the fall of the USSR and interpret post-Soviet developments.

For students seeking ICC Theme connection -

INTEGRATIVE CORE CURRICULUM

For students fulfilling an ICC Identities of World of System theme -

The USSR: History and Legacies is a humanities course that seeks to understand the human experience through analysis, interpretation, and reflection, engaging in the particulars of individual experiences, texts, or other artifacts.  We will describe and interpret the values, beliefs, and behaviors of self and others in the context of historical and contemporary cultural and political institutions through the lens of communist party state policies, their implementation and impact on peoples’ daily life, values and the human condition in general in the USSR and beyond its borders as an expanding world system and evolving identities. 

This humanities perspective is also connected to the Ithaca College Integrative Core Curriculum themes of A World of Systems, and Identities.  A World of Systems asks the question of how people make sense of and navigate complexity.  This theme is examined through aligning and recognizing aspects of daily lives occurring through a host of physical, political, economic, technological, social and creative systems at both local and global levels, and how historical thought has shaped the values we live by.  The study of the USSR’s evolution as the very first communist state whose evolution directly challenged the existing capitalist world order and the USSR’s subsequent global expansion as a competing world system created a global political, economic and social network that directly challenged American values and world views as illustrated by a competition of two superpowers as a competing superpower casts the creation of new systems challenging, modifying and/or supplanting existing systems and their impact on everyday life and values. 

Was the collapse of the USSR and its leadership of a global communist World System inevitable? 

The USSR course directly addresses the theme of Identities through an evaluation of new political definitions of collective identities based on social class and dealing with redefining national identities in a multinational state.  The Communist Party of the Soviet Union applied supreme value to the raising of social class consciousness based upon economic activities and status. Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist ideologies and state policies brought forth the concept of class conflict and specifically elevated the status of the industrial working class. The creation of the USSR was a response to the multi-national and multi-ethnic nature of the Soviet state.  A new Soviet internationalist working class identity was emphasized in place of national identities.  This internationalist identity was eventually replaced with an emphasis on the centrality of Russian identity and hegemony. 

Is there validity in assessing our places in society through the lens of social class in addition to individual identities?

Identified essay questions will address either the Identities or World of Systems theme. Your essay will serve as an artifact for attachment in your ICC e-portfolio.

The Writing Center aims to help students from all disciplines, backgrounds, and experiences to develop greater independence as writers.  We are committed to helping students see writing as central to critical and creative thinking. 

In a friendly, comfortable atmosphere, writers at all levels participate in one-on-one conferences with advanced student and faculty tutors to work on effective strategies for all aspects of the writing process. Topics explored in these conferences may include

o   idea generation, focus, and organization

o   understanding of assignments and readings

o   comprehensive rewriting of drafts

o   sentence structure and style

o   grammar, punctuation, and spelling

o   research and note-taking methods

o   source documentation

We offer these services for students in all disciplines: humanities and sciences, business, health sciences and human performance, communications, and music. In our conferences, we encourage students to develop confidence as independent thinkers and writers. This means that we will not revise or correct papers for students, but instead will help them learn how to do so for themselves.

The Writing Center is open M-F 9-5 and Sn-Tr 7-10 (PM). Please make an appointment! If we are booked, you can sign up for the waiting list.

Appointments can be made by visiting http://ithaca.mywconline.com    

The USSR:  History and Legacies

Fall 2017

HIST 22200-01

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:10-2:25

Ithaca College

Zenon V. Wasyliw

Professor, Department of History and

Coordinator, Social Studies Teacher Education                                                                                                                                                                      

Muller 427, 274-1587, wasyliw@ithaca.edu

Monday and Wednesday Noon-1:00; Tuesday and Thursday 2:30-3:30

By appointment other times and days

https://faculty.ithaca.edu/wasyliw                                                       

INTRODUCTION

The USSR heavily influenced global history through the introduction of a revolutionary and competing expansive world system with an emphasis on identities based upon economic status and social class. These and other Soviet internal and external developments had a great and often tragic impact on the twentieth century.  The Soviet historical legacy remains alive and disputed after the fall of the USSR and communism in 1991 and into the twenty first century. Russia under Putin re-asserts its claim to regional and global power through reclaiming the former Soviet space within a Eurasian context and positive appraisal of the Soviet past. Ukraine and other former Soviet republics challenge the Russian historical paradigm and geopolitical goals with their own national historical narratives more critical of the Soviet past and aligned with European values and integration.

This course is a survey of Soviet history.  We begin with pre-revolutionary conditions at the turn of the century, appraise the 1917 revolutions and then proceed through the varied stages, policies, leaders, and both their internal and global impact through 1991 and beyond as outlined in the topics section of this syllabus.  Stalin and Stalinism receive special attention. 

An interdisciplinary approach is the foundation of analysis and critical appraisal.  Political, intellectual, social, cultural, economic and other modes of evaluation are implemented.  The study of Soviet history might be complex yet it is also extremely fascinating.  We will engage in an interesting journey and evaluation of the Soviet past and its influence on the present and future.

BOOKS            

The following books are required for the course and may be purchased at the college bookstore.

Dolot, Miron.  Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (Norton Publishing))

Husband, William B.  The Human Tradition in Modern Russia (Rowman)

Marples, David.  Russia in the Twentieth Century (Longman)

Roth-Ey, Kristin. Moscow Prime Time. How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire That Lost the Cultural Cold War

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

“Seventeen Moments in Soviet History” – http://soviethistory.msu.edu/

This impressive website contains a variety of valuable resources.  Specific assignments from this site are listed in the “Topics and Reading Assignments” section of this syllabus. 

Tips for writing history papers – Cornell University

http://www.arts.cornell.edu/prh3/257/classmats/papertip.html

Chicago Manual of Style – citation guide

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

Additional citation styles - https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/

Supplemental primary sources and handouts will also be distributed and additional relevant library holdings will be referenced. 

Please review valuable relevant links at the end of this syllabus  

TOPICS AND READING ASSIGNMENTS

The syllabus outline, topics and assignments are subject to change depending on student interest and contemporary developments or issues in the countries of the former USSR

Dates:

31 Aug., 5 and 7 September Week 1 and 2 – The power and legacy of imagined history narratives and memory

A Thousand Years of History: Major Themes, Issues and Comparative Russian and Ukrainian Narratives

The Tsarist State - Late Imperial Russia and the path to revolution. Competing ideologies and the realities of life

Nicholas II – The Last Tsar of the Russian Empire –

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OnTLEYbkds

Rasputin as symbol of Tsarist corruption – Ra Ra Rasputin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmkySNDX4dU

 Primary sources - http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html

Revolutionaries and prelude to revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1905

See outline of political parties listed after Topics section

Lenin – “What is to be Done” http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1902lenin.asp

Assignment for Weeks 1 and 2: Marples, Russia in the Twentieth Century, Chapters 1 and 2

Husband, The Human Tradition in Modern Russia, Chapters 1-3

The Revolutions of 1917

The February Revolution, Dual Power in 1917: Constituent Assembly or “All Power to the Soviets!”

The Great October Socialist Revolution Bolshevik victory and the first ever communist state in world history

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – a. link to the year 1917 and continue linking toward theme, topics and primary sources.  For example – Bolsheviks Seize Power http://soviethistory.msu.edu/1917-2/bolsheviks-seize-power/

Discussion of Husband readings 1-3

12 and 14 Sept.  Week 3.  One Hundred Years: Legacy of the October Revolution

Civil War! Reds vs. Whites

Competing Historical Interpretations on the October Revolution of 1917. The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921, Non-Russian Nationalities and Nationalism and War Communism - Historiographical Debates on the Creation and Evolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR

An overview of the Soviet legacy – Complete History of the Soviet Union, Arranged to the Melody of Tetris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWTFG3J1CP8

Assignment for week 3: Marples, Chapter 2

Assignment for week 4: Husband, Chapters 4-7 and Marples, Chapter 4                               

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   - 1921

19 and 21 Sept. Week 4The 1920s: A kinder and gentler Bolshevism or an interregnum?

The Era of the New Economic Policy: Retreat and Rebuilding, 1921-1928.

Culture and Society during the NEP: the Transformation of Everyday Life and Values - Culture and Cultural Revolution. 

Discussion of Husband readings 4-7

Assignment for week 5: Marples, Chapter 3

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1924

Bean, “Nikolai Bukharin and the New Economic Policy” http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_02_1_bean.pdf

Sakai - Lenin biography

26 and 28 Sept. Week 5The Lenin Legacy

The Death of Lenin: “Long Live Lenin” and the Cult of Lenin - Socialism in One Country and the New Economic Policy.

Continue discussion of Husband articles and discuss Bean article

Assignment for week 6: On Sakai -McCauley, Stalin and Stalinism,

Marples, Chapters 3 and 4  

First Examination take-home                       

3 and 5 Oct. Week 6. Who will succeed Lenin? The last debates and the legacy of counterfactual history

Leadership, Internal Power Struggles and the Struggle for Succession - The Stalin-Trotsky Controversy and Competing Policy Debates

Assignment for weeks 7 and 8: Marples, Chapters 3 and 4  

Husband, Chapters   8-10

http://academic.shu.edu/russianhistory/index.php/Stalin_on_Rapid_Industrialization

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1924, 1929                                 

10, 12 and 17 Oct. Week 7 and 8. Stalin, Stalinism and the Stalinist Revolution

The Stalin Revolution. Collectivization, Industrialization and the Five Year Plan - State Sponsored Economic Modernization and the Eventual Victory over Capitalism 

Discussion of Husband, Chapters 8 and 9

Assignment for weeks 8 and 9: Marples, Chapter 4

HBO original movie starring Robert Duvall as Joseph Stalin (1992) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A57gNcOdduo

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1929, 1934

SPRING BREAK – 19-20 Oct.

Finish reading and write a one page critique of Dolot, Execution by Hunger http://www.holodomor.ca/ and conceptualize and work on special project

24 and 26 Oct. Week 9Holodomor: the Ukrainian Famine and Rapid Industrialization

Discussion and Analysis of the Dolot book and related documents on industrialization, political purges and the gulag.  Culture and Society in the Socialist Motherland

Assignment for next week: Online and Sakai sources on Stalin

The Dolot Critique is due

Begin reading Solzhenitsyn,

31 Oct. and 2 Nov.  Week 10. Toward a Communist Utopia? The Party and the Great Purge

The Path toward a Communist Utopia – Goals, Problems, Solutions and Results.  The Structure of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – the CPSU

Stalin “Cleanses” the Party and State,” The Assassination of Kirov,

the Great Purges and the Building of  Socialism through Forced Labor in the Siberian Gulag.

Stakhanovite Glory and the Workers’ Paradise - Historical Interpretations of Stalinism and the

Stalinist Purges

Second Examination take-home

Assignment for week 11: Marples, Chapters 4 and 5

Finish reading Solzhenitsyn and write a one page critique

Online documents on Stalin and Stalinism 

Stalin: Inside the Terror -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIzApqzlP3Q                             

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/   – 1934, 1936, 1939

7 and 9 Nov. Week 11. The Great War, shifting alliances and the legacy of the Second World War. The Gulag survives.  

A political and military history of Second World War

Discussion of Solzhenistsyn

Assignment for week 12: Marples, Chapter 5

Husband, Chapter 11                                 

Sakai and online related documents

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/ – 1934, 1936, 1939

Solzhenitsyn one page critique is due

Begin reading Moscow Prime Time

Second Examination is due

14 and 16 Nov.  Week 12. High Stalinism, the Cold War, the death of Stalin and the Stalin Legacy.  Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization

Stalin and the Stalin cult. The USSR and USA as competing superpowers and the global expansion of communism.   

Assignment for week 13: Marples, Chapter 6

Khrushchev De-Stalinization Speech - http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.html  

Read Moscow Prime Time

State Anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1977-1991) Red Army Chorus   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sxTbfeYdO0   

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/  – 1947, 1954, 1956, 1961,

Thanksgiving Break 18-26 November

Finish reading Kristin Roth-Ey, Moscow Prime Time

Marples, Chapter 6

28 and 30 Nov. Week 13Khrushchev: Corn, Reform and the Cold War: the meaning of “We will bury you!

Khrushchev’s domestic reforms, competition with the U.S. and Cold War challenges – the Hungarian Revolution, Berlin Wall and Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cold War - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9HjvHZfCUI

Nixon vs. Khrushchev – The Kitchen Debate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CvQOuNecy4

Khrushchev goes to Hollywood, but not Disneyland - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufkuEVtNl_Y

Discussion of Moscow Media, Introduction, Chapters 1 and 2, Soviet film industry and the new Soviet Movie culture

Assignment for Week 14, Marples, Chapters 7 and 8

http://soviethistory.msu.edu/  – 1968, 1973, 1980, 1986, 1989

5 and 7 December Week 14. From Stagnation to Glasnost and Perestroika

Brezhnev “Years of Stagnation.” An Appraisal of Stalin’s Successors and the Significance of Gorbachev’s Policy of Glasnost and Perestroika.

Brezhnev and the Cold War - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTUFtlSzMJ0

The Moscow Olympics of 1980 and LA Olympics of 1984

Discussion of Moscow Media, Chapters 3, 4, and 5, Radio, Television and Authority

Assignment: Marples, Chapter 8 and 9

Gorbachev and the Fall of the USSR -   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0g6arFbKZ60

12 and 14 December Week 15. The Post-Soviet World: Europe or Eurasia. Legacies and selective memories. Putin, the Ukrainian Euromaidan Revolution and Cyberspace

Why did the Soviet Union Collapse? Comparative Post-Soviet Political Developments - Memory of the Soviet Past through Competing and Conflicting Memories - Human Rights, Civil Society and the Legacy of Perpetrators and Victims

Special Project Presentations begin and continue during exam week designated time of –

Tuesday, 19 Dec., 10:30-1:00

18-22 December Week 16Examination Week - Take-home USSR Final Examination and Special Project final submissions are due by noon Friday, 22 December

For week 2 of class -

HIST-22200 The USSR: History and Legacies

Social Structure of the late 19th and early 20thCentury Russian Empire

1.         Nobility

2.         Clergy

3.         Peasants/villagers

4.         Town population

5.         Intelligentsia

6.  Urban industrial working class – the proletariat

7.  Non-Russian nationalities and minorities

Reactionary policies of Alexander III

The Okhrana – Tsarist secret police

Nicholas II continues autocratic values

Sergei Witte and modernization

Modernization and the world-system.

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/wallerstein.html

Industrial growth

Famine, peasant uprisings and workers’ strikes

Main currents in politics and ideologies

Nicholas, Alexandra and Rasputin

Russian Social Democratic Workers Party - 1898

Socialist Revolutionary Party - 1901

1903 – Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

Marx and Lenin

Constitutional Democrats – Kadets and the Octobrists

Monarchists

Anarchism

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1896kropotkin.asp  

http://www.afed.org.uk/ace/bakunin.html  

Socialist Revolutionary Party – 1901

http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/srprog.html

Bolshevik Social Democrats

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1902lenin.asp  

the Mensheviks

http://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/m/e.htm  

Constitutional Democrats – Kadets

http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/kadprog.html  

Monarchist

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/Statesman.html  

Russo-Japanese War, the 1905 Revolution “Bloody Sunday” and the

DUMA – pseudo-parliament

REQUIREMENTS

1.  7.2.2.14 Attendance Policy

Attendance “Students at Ithaca College are expected to attend all classes, and they are responsible for work missed during any absence from class.  At the beginning of each semester, instructors must provide the students in their courses with written guidelines regarding possible grading penalties for failure to attend class. Students should notify their instructors as soon as possible of any anticipated absences. Written documentation that indicates the reason for being absent may be required. These guidelines may vary from course to course but are subject to the following restrictions:” Please carefully read the official Ithaca College attendance policy for detailed elaborations upon “1. In accordance with New York State law, students who miss class due to their religious beliefs shall be excused from class or examinations on that day. 2. Any student who misses class due to a verifiable family or individual health emergency, or to a required appearance in a court of law, shall be excused. 3. A student may be excused for participation in College-authorized co-curricular and extracurricular activities, if, in the instructor's judgment, this does not impair the specific student's or the other students' ability to succeed in the course. https://www.ithaca.edu/hs/depts/theatre/handbook/academics/attendance/

Absences will adversely affect the comprehension of course material and one’s grade.  Students are expected to have read the assigned readings and participate in class discussion.

2.  Each student will complete two interpretive essay examinations and a final comprehensive examination.  All essays are of a take-home format. They are conceptual in nature and test students’ comprehension and analysis of material covered in class and assigned readings.

3.  Each student will write one page analytical assessments of the Dolot and Solzhenitsyn books prior to class discussion of each book.           

4.  USSR and beyond Special Projrct

The project must be on a subject of intense personal interest related to Soviet, pre- or post-Soviet history. Late Soviet (Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Gorbachev) and post-Soviet topics are encouraged as we cover the early Soviet and Stalinist era in greater detail. Creative and non-conformist topics are especially favored. Similar themed collaboration is encouraged through group projects yet individual projects are also fine.

Format –

1.         A one or two paragraph introduction that includes a brief overview of the topic, why the topic was selected and a thesis statement that answers a larger question or questions and its relation to the course.

2.         The actual presentation may take the form of:

a.)        a 15 minute group presentation with outline handouts for the class

b.)        a video presentation prepared for the class, also with outline handouts

c.)        a poster presentation

d.)        a three to five page cited essay with a brief summary provided for the class

e.)        a speculative futurist scenario through role playing and/or media

f.)        other formats will also be considered

5.  The writing of essays, critiques and papers follows specific criteria and all sources must be properly documented.  Carefully read the Ithaca College Standards of Academic Conduct found at the end of the syllabus and at the following Student Policies link –

https://www.ithaca.edu/policies/vol7/general/070104/  

Documentation needs to follow the Chicago Manual of Style -

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html   

Additional citation styles - https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/  

6.  "In accordance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act, reasonable accommodations will be provided to qualified students with documented disabilities. Students seeking accommodations must register with Student Accessibility Services and provide appropriate documentation before any accommodations can be provided. Please note that accommodations are not retroactive so timely contact with Student Accessibility Services is encouraged."

7. Diminished mental health, including significant stress, mood changes, excessive worry, or problems with eating and/or sleeping can interfere with optimal academic performance. The source of symptoms might be related to your course work; if so, please speak with me. However, problems with relationships, family worries, loss, or a personal struggle or crisis can also contribute to decreased academic performance.

Ithaca College provides no-additional-cost mental health services through the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) to help you manage personal challenges that threaten your personal or academic well-being.

In the event I suspect you need additional support, expect that I will express to you my concerns and the reasons for them. It is not my intent to know the details of what might be troubling you, but simply to let you know I am concerned and that help (e.g., CAPS, ICare, Health Center, Chaplains, etc...), if needed, is available.

Remember, getting help is a smart and courageous thing to do -- for yourself and for your loved ones

8. Title IX is a federal act mandating that educational institutions receiving federal funding must provide sex and gender equity. All students thus have the right to a campus atmosphere free of sexual harassment, sexual violence, and gender discrimination. For reports of sexual assault and general issues, please contact Tiffani Ziemann, Title IX Coordinator

https://www.ithaca.edu/sacl/share/

9. The syllabus outline, topics and assignments are subject to change.

GRADES

All work must be completed to earn a passing grade!

Assessments

First Examination                                                        20%

Second Examination                                                   20%

Two Book Critiques and special project                     25%

Final Examination                                                       25%

Qualitative Class Participation                                    10%

                                                                                   100%

The above assessments meet the Ithaca College Department of

History Student Learning Outcome Assessment goals –

1. Attain factual knowledge

2. Identify, gather and use primary and secondary sources for historical inquiry

3. Demonstrate skills in communicating thesis-driven arguments based on evidence

Provided by sources, both secondary and primary

4. Demonstrate critical reading skills that recognize and analyze complexity and ambiguity in sources and historical processes

5. Demonstrate capacity for engaged, knowledgeable and competent global citizenship

6. Demonstrate desire and capacity for lifelong learning

LINKS

General Sites

Soviet History: http://soviethistory.msu.edu/  

History Central: http://vlib.iue.it/history/index.html#vlsearch   

Modern History Sources: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html

http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/modsbook39.asp  

University of Pittsburg Center http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/crees/

University of Michigan Center: http://www.ii.umich.edu/crees  

Russian and East European Sources, Georgetown: http://guides.library.georgetown.edu/russian  

ASEEES: http://aseees.org/  

Association for the Study of Nationalities: http://nationalities.org  

Harvard Davis Center Russian and Eurasian Studies: http://daviscenter.fas.harvard.edu/  

Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute:   http://www.huri.harvard.edu/

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies: http://www.ualberta.ca/CIUS/   

Ukrainian: http://www.ukrainianstudies.org  

Ukraine: http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com  

Georgia: http://www.georgiatoday.ge/  

Qazaqstan (Kazakhstan): http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/53/index-b.html

History

Rasputin: http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/rasputinreport.html  

Marxism: http://marxists.org/glossary  

Russian Revolution: http://www.barnsdle.demon.co.uk/russ/rusrev.html  

Lenin Mausoleum: http://lenin.ru/index_e.htm  

Historical Documents: http://artsci.shu.edu/reesp/documents  

Ukrainian Famine: http://www.holodomor.ca/  

Memorial: http://www.memo.ru/eng/  suspended by Russian government

Gulag: http://www.gulaghistory.org  

Stalinist Repression: http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/gulag.html  

Holocaust: http://www.ushmm.org  

Cold War: “Cold War International History Project”

http://www.wilsoncenter.org/program/cold-war-international-history-project  

Cold War Studies at Harvard University: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws  

A Resource Guide to the Cold War

http://www.mobileqrcodes.us/mobile/guide-cold-war.html  

Central Eurasia and Caucasus: http://cesww.fas.harvard.edu/  

Armenia: http://www.armenian-genocide.org  

History of Jews in Russia: http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/  

Ukrainian Jewish Encounter: http://ukrainianjewishencounter.org/  

The Jewish Virtual Library: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/europetour.html  

National embassy pages - e.g. Kyrgyzstan http://kgembassy.org   and/or

Country reports and history outlines found on http://news.bbc.co.uk  

Soros Foundation Open Society Foundation: http://www.soros.org  

Peaceful Revolution: http://www.aeinstein.org    

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Content, Critical Thinking and Conceptual Objectives:

1. Situate global historical perspectives to identify and assess pre-revolutionary conditions and ideologies at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their influence on the revolutions of 1917.

2. Appraise the 1917 revolutions and apply competing historical arguments to analyze and decide the role played by the Bolsheviks in the revolutionary process and civil war.

3. Apply a world systems approach defining Marxism in economic, political and social terms as interpreted and applied by Lenin, Stalin and other Soviet leaders. Decide how competing world systems defined the Cold War with special consideration given the US-USSR rivalry

4. Focus on the evolution of identities based upon economic status and social class and Marxist-Leninist social class theory is implemented through specific policies and propaganda.

5. Place into context the non-Russian nationalities and evaluate the historical debates on the creation, evolution and demise of the USSR influenced by nationalities issues.

6. Study and assess social and cultural transformations of everyday life and values through the stages of Soviet state polices – the New Economic Policy, the Stalinist Era, and succeeding policy transitions

7. Compare, contrast and apply competing historical arguments evaluating Stalin’s rise to power, policies and competing legacies

8. Evaluate the theme of power and justice in identifying victims and perpetrators in crimes against humanity and the lasting legacy and historical arguments evaluating these legacies. 

9. Assess the issues, events and historical interpretations leading to the fall of the USSR and interpret post-Soviet developments.

For students seeking ICC Theme connection -

INTEGRATIVE CORE CURRICULUM

For students fulfilling an ICC Identities of World of System theme -

The USSR: History and Legacies is a humanities course that seeks to understand the human experience through analysis, interpretation, and reflection, engaging in the particulars of individual experiences, texts, or other artifacts.  We will describe and interpret the values, beliefs, and behaviors of self and others in the context of historical and contemporary cultural and political institutions through the lens of communist party state policies, their implementation and impact on peoples’ daily life, values and the human condition in general in the USSR and beyond its borders as an expanding world system and evolving identities. 

This humanities perspective is also connected to the Ithaca College Integrative Core Curriculum themes of A World of Systems, and Identities.  A World of Systems asks the question of how people make sense of and navigate complexity.  This theme is examined through aligning and recognizing aspects of daily lives occurring through a host of physical, political, economic, technological, social and creative systems at both local and global levels, and how historical thought has shaped the values we live by.  The study of the USSR’s evolution as the very first communist state whose evolution directly challenged the existing capitalist world order and the USSR’s subsequent global expansion as a competing world system created a global political, economic and social network that directly challenged American values and world views as illustrated by a competition of two superpowers as a competing superpower casts the creation of new systems challenging, modifying and/or supplanting existing systems and their impact on everyday life and values. 

Was the collapse of the USSR and its leadership of a global communist World System inevitable? 

The USSR course directly addresses the theme of Identities through an evaluation of new political definitions of collective identities based on social class and dealing with redefining national identities in a multinational state.  The Communist Party of the Soviet Union applied supreme value to the raising of social class consciousness based upon economic activities and status. Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist ideologies and state policies brought forth the concept of class conflict and specifically elevated the status of the industrial working class. The creation of the USSR was a response to the multi-national and multi-ethnic nature of the Soviet state.  A new Soviet internationalist working class identity was emphasized in place of national identities.  This internationalist identity was eventually replaced with an emphasis on the centrality of Russian identity and hegemony. 

Is there validity in assessing our places in society through the lens of social class in addition to individual identities?

Identified essay questions will address either the Identities or World of Systems theme. Your essay will serve as an artifact for attachment in your ICC e-portfolio.

The Writing Center aims to help students from all disciplines, backgrounds, and experiences to develop greater independence as writers.  We are committed to helping students see writing as central to critical and creative thinking. 

In a friendly, comfortable atmosphere, writers at all levels participate in one-on-one conferences with advanced student and faculty tutors to work on effective strategies for all aspects of the writing process. Topics explored in these conferences may include

o   idea generation, focus, and organization

o   understanding of assignments and readings

o   comprehensive rewriting of drafts

o   sentence structure and style

o   grammar, punctuation, and spelling

o   research and note-taking methods

o   source documentation

We offer these services for students in all disciplines: humanities and sciences, business, health sciences and human performance, communications, and music. In our conferences, we encourage students to develop confidence as independent thinkers and writers. This means that we will not revise or correct papers for students, but instead will help them learn how to do so for themselves.

Hours for the Fall semester will begin Sunday, September 10th, and are as follows: Monday-Friday from 9-5 and Sunday-Thursday, 7-10 PM.

Appointments can be made by visiting http://ithaca.mywconline.com