W.E.B. Du Bois was an American sociologist, civil rights activist, and a founder of the NAACP. He was the first African American to earn his PhD. from Harvard and one of the most influential black intellectuals of the early 20th century. He produced numerous works over his long life on racism, colonialism, and black experiences. His radical political positions often put him at odds with the U.S. government. In 1961 Dr. Du Bois moved the Ghana where he died at the age of 95.
Nelson Mandela was known worldwide for his activism to abolish apartheid. A political prisoner for 27 years, Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for high treason and conspiracy against the state in connection to activist work against apartheid. After his release in 1990 he became the first President of the democratic Republic of South Africa, leading the country after the downfall of apartheid. He earned a Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his work in the abolition of apartheid and a peaceful transition to a democratically ruled South Africa.