Asma Barlas

Professor Emerita, Politics
School: School of Humanities and Sciences

Selected Keynotes, Talks & Interviews



Interview with Yusuf Ismail, August, 2023


At podium

Keynote: "Out of Place: Reflections on Identity, Belonging, and Difference."
Department of Islamic-Religious Studies (DIRS)
June 22, 2023



Brill EWIC Conversations; with Jeanette Jouili (forthcoming)

Keynote, Conference on Europe's Muslim Women, Muslim Women in Europe? Vienna, November 26, 2022.

Headshot; keynote.

Photo by Alisa Kulic.

Keynote, Women, Religion, and Human Rights, Lebanon, June 2022.

Screen shot of my lecture in Lebanon, via Zoom

Asma Barlas, "In Defense of an Ungendered Theology," June 27, 2022. Conference hosted by the ADYAN FOUNDATION.

Conference on "Islam and Women," Istanbul, May 2022.


"Islam and Women" organized by AyVakfi Foundation and  Bahcesehir University in Istanbul, Turkey, May 27-28, 2022.

Panel on Pakistan, London School of Economimcs.

Picture of myself via YouTube

Pakistan: Protest, Solidarity, Democracy. Video. London School of Economics, February 24, 2022.

Interview with Dr. Farid Suleiman, FAU, Germany.

Interview with Farid Suleiman



Documentary on Islam and Women


Islam and Women. Documentary by Dr. Feryal Kalkavan Taslaman and Dr. Caner Taslaman; released 2021.

Keynote, Justus Liebig University, Germany.

Screen shot of Giessen lecture

On the occasion of the 10th Anniversary of Islamic Theology at JLU
13. Dezember 2021 (18:00- 20:00 Uhr)

Classical Religious Authority, Qur’anic Exegesis, and Muslim Women: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Age. em. Dr. Asma Barlas (New York)

Lecture on the Qur'an, University of Warwick.

Video; University of Warwick Law School, U.K., November 5, 2021.

Keynote, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.


Asma Barlas, The Qur’an’s Sacrality, Authority, and Normativity, October 14, 2021.

The AIWG Longterm-Research Group, "Normativity of the Qur’an in Context of Social Change”, organized an international conference on Hermeneutics of Quranic Norm Change on October 14-15, 2021 at the University of Erlangen, which was inaugurated with a Keynote Lecture by the renowned Quranic scholar Prof. Dr. Asma Barlas (Ithaca College, New York).

Afghan Women, the Taliban, and Islamic Extremism.

Interview, The Hankyoreh, South Korea, August 26, 2021 (solicited but not published).

-Unfortunately, many Koreans think of terrorism and patriarchal culture first when they think of Islam. You think it's a misunderstanding? So, why is female oppression, gender inequality committed in some extremist Muslims or countries? 

I’m not surprised to hear that Koreans have a negative view of Islam and Muslims; so too, does everybody else, it seems, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S. Although all the attackers, other than one, were Saudi men, the U.S. went to war in Iraq and Afghanistan and declared a global war on terror directed at Muslims. (Thus far, over 800,000 people have died as a result of this war, according to a Brown University study.) So, it’s to be expected that Islam and Muslims have become linked to terrorism in most people’s minds even though such a view means blaming one billion Muslims and their religion for the actions of a few men. 

However, I’d like to put this fear (and demonization) of Islam in some historical perspective since it has long and deep roots, at least in the West. In fact, as early as the ninth century, Europeans were depicting Islam and the Prophet Muhammad as the antichrist, a figure the Bible describes as the enemy of Christianity. The difference is that, these days, many in the West depict Islam and the Prophet as terroristic, that is, as enemies of the West. So, not much has changed in a millennium and a half. 

I believe the tendency to exceptionalize the violence against Muslim women—to describe it as uniquely Islamic—is also meant to denigrate the religion. Yes, unfortunately, there is violence against women in Muslim countries, which are patriarchal and, yes, many of the men who do this violence make it seem that it is their Islamic right (I’ve written about why it is not). But, why do people believe that only Muslim countries are violent and patriarchal? Certainly, the Taliban are misogynists (men who hate women) but are they the world’s first or only misogynists? According to the WHO, one out of three women, globally, is a victim of violence. Just recently, I also read on the BBC that there is a growing culture of drugging and raping young women in fancy South Korean clubs. My point, simply, is that it should be possible to condemn the Taliban while recognizing that sexism, misogyny and patriarchy aren’t “Islamic” (they pre-date Islam) and have been naturalized all over the world, including in secular countries. 

-The Taliban, so-called Islamic extremism, do you think they are faithful to Islamic doctrine? 

Well, it depends on what one means by “Islamic doctrine.” Personally, I only consider those things “Islamic” that are in the Qur’an, which is the scripture of Islam. So, if we were to go by its teachings, then, the things the Taliban are doing are not Islamic. For instance, the Qur’an doesn’t mandate covering one’s face/ hair as a woman; it doesn’t use the word “hijab” for women’s dress; it does not say women can’t be educated or work or be financially independent (the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad was); and nor does it mention things like stoning to death or beheading people for adultery or “honor” killings or female genital cutting. Yet, over the centuries even Muslims have come to consider such things “Islamic” because, not everyone knows their scripture, much less lives by its ethics or teachings. 

In passing, I also want to note that the Qur’an forbids Muslims to force religious belief on others, which is what the Taliban does by forcing its own “brand” of Islam onto the population. This is not “Islamic” tyranny; it is the tyranny of the Taliban. On the same note, a lot of what goes on in so-called Islamic countries has little to do with Islam and is rooted in centuries old patriarchal and tribal cultures, customs, and beliefs. 

-When the Taliban took control of Afghanistan, they declared, "We would respect women's rights if women wore hijab." Do you believe this? 

No. Besides, I want to make it clear that the Qur’an never uses the word “hijab” for women’s dress and the rights it gives women are not contingent on obeying men or governments. In the seventh century, the Qur’an taught that women, no less than men, are God’s subjects and that men and women are one another’s guardians. But Muslims ignore this fundamental teaching and in virtually no Muslim country do women enjoy the range of rights the Qur’an gives them. 

-What efforts will be needed within Afghanistan or Islamic culture? 

To begin, there is no single or monolithic Islamic culture. The world’s billion Muslims have different cultures and histories and, while we share certain religious beliefs, no two countries are identical. The world’s largest Muslim country is Indonesia and when I visited it (I was born in Pakistan), I was struck by the fact that women drove scooters, moved around freely, and prayed in mosques by themselves. This doesn’t happen in Pakistan which underwent a forced regime of “Islamization” in the 1980s, at the hands of the military dictator, General Zia ul Haq. So, if two of the largest Muslim countries have such differing cultures regarding women in public what can we say about “the” Islamic culture? 

Second, if people want to improve Afghan women’s status, they should protest not only against the Taliban but also against the governments of the counties that have destroyed Afghanistan, in the name of saving it and its women. This would be the Soviet Union and the U.S. More to the point, there isn’t a single instance in history I know of when an external invasion improved the lot of women, despite how the U.S. is spinning its twenty-year war against, and occupation of, Afghanistan. Far from having benefitted its women, the U.S. created a whole new set of problems for them

Finally, wherever women were able to get rights, there was a combination of at least two factors: their own struggles to mobilize and a change or shift in social structures and attitudes. To think that one can gift a right to someone while leaving intact the social structures in which they live is utterly naïve. In the U.S., African-Americans have the same rights today that white people do but, as we have seen, these rights can only go so far within the political and economic structures of white supremacy. 

-Do you think Afghanistan needs international action to stop the oppression of women? 

This is a dangerous way of putting it because, after all, women’s oppression is a global phenomenon. Which country is suited to invade another when its own women are victims of violence? The fact that this violence isn’t as visible as the violence against Afghan women doesn’t make it any less heinous or less of a problem.  At best, therefore, all that women’s groups and governments can do is to continue to exert moral and diplomatic pressure on the Taliban about their ill-treatment of women. 

-What else do you want to say to women in Afghanistan or Korea? 

I wonder if Afghan women will be reading this and I am hesitant to say too much to your readers since I’m guessing they know that violence against women happens wherever we happen to live and takes many different forms. I’m guessing they also know that there’s a tendency to ignore the violence around us since it’s too close while wanting to save Muslim women in “barbaric” “Islamic” lands. Personally, I have no illusions that I can save anyone; at most, I can keep identifying the problem of violence because remaining silent brings pain and despair. 

Keynote, Noor Cultural Center, Canada.

Headshot on Zoom

Islamophobia: The Long History of a Violent Present by Dr Asma Barlas (Professor Emerita of Politics, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ithaca College, USA). June 17, 2021. Program will also include a screening of the first video in the ‘Islamophobia Is’ series –  five video shorts and accompanying resources on systemic Islamophobia in Canada – and Q&A with Prof Barlas.



Podcast with Sofia Rehman (U.K.), November 21, 2020.

Headshot of myself during podcast.

Islam, Gender and Feminism are hotly debated and rarely understood. This Zoom discussion was held following a global read along of Professor Asma Barlas's book, Believing Women in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Quran, led by Dr Sofia Rehman.

Interview by TRT World, October 29, 2020.


Podcast: Dignified Resilence, August 2020.

Podcast with Riada Akyol, August 16, 2020.

Bosnian writer and journalist Riada Asimovic Akyol presents a podcast about fresh narratives on confronting despair, alleviating distress, and forging ahead. ... Ultimately, this podcast is an invitation for people to engage in a thoughtful introspection, regardless of one’s geographical location or state of mind.

Believing Women

Hidden Figures: Tracing the History of Muslim Women Scholars, Islamic Center of Southern California, August 9, 2020.

New Books: Interview with Asad Dandia. August 3, 2020.

BBC Interview, April 2020

BBC interview

This week marks the beginning of the most important days in the Islamic calendar. It's the start of the Holy Month of Ramadan when the faithful are required to fast from dawn to dusk. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has cast a shadow to this year's festivities. Around the world lockdowns and restrictions have been imposed including on the Holy Lands: Mecca and Medina. Professor Asma Barlas from Ithaca College in New York is a Muslim scholar who is well-versed in the Holy Qur’an. She helps us find out what is allowed, and what is not during the pandemic.


"Reading the Qur'an Justly," Keynote address, conference on (Un)Just Religion: Building Community and Identity, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada, March 16, 2019.

Agha Khan University, London, 2019.


New Horizons, London.

Council for Arab-British Understanding, 2019.

photo of myself and guests

Dr Barlas is an internationally renowned Pakistani-American writer, academic and author of "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur’an.  ... She was the founding director of the Center for the Study of Culture, Race and Ethnicity at Ithaca College, the Spinoza Chair in Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and she is currently a professor of politics at Ithaca College.

University of Leeds, Iqbal Center, U.K., 2019.

Image of poster of my talk

In Conversation with Professor Asma Barlas. Moderator: Dr. Sofia Rehman.

Bradford Literature Festival, U.K., 2019




“Reading the Word in a Foreign Tongue: Islam’s Scripture, the Qur’an, and Non-Arab Muslims.” Plenary address, International Linguistic Association 63rd annual conference (Language and Religion). St. John’s University, New York, April 21, 2018.

“When Gender is a Problem in Qur’anic Exegesis,” New York University Abu Dhabi Institute. Workshop on Gender and Tafsir Studies. Abu Dhabi, April 8, 2018.


“Secularizing the Qur’an?” and “Decoloniality and Internal Colonialism: The secular turn in Qur’anic Studies.” Center for Intercultural Dialogues (Granada), and the University of California, Berkeley, Granada Spain, July 7, 2017.


“Sex/Gender and Women in the Qur’an,” panel, Human Rights, Gender, and Sexuality in the Islamic World, DISC/WCED Symposium, Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Laureate respondent. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, October 27, 2016.

“Muslim Women and the Qur’an” Marsico Scholar Lecture, Department of Religious Studies, University of Denver, October 13, 2016.

Human Rights, Gender, and Sexuality in the Islamic World DISC/WCED Symposium.

Video of my talk

Video of Panel
University of Michigan
October, 2016

This symposium brought together a diverse group of experts who have contributed to the conversation on human rights, gender, and LGBTQ movements in an Islamic context. Panelists discussed Muslim approaches to minorities, including the the movement towards decriminalizing homosexuals, the Qur’an’s position on sex/gender, and the history of human rights in the Muslim world. This event follows a lecture by the Nobel-prize winning human rights lawyer Shirin Ebadi, who will participate in the panel discussion.

Talk, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2014.

“Why is it so Hard to Speak about Islam?” NYI-St. Petersburg Institute of Linguistics, Cognition, and Culture, Russia, July 24, 2014.



“Qur’anic Hermeneutics as Ethics,” Keynote, “Critical Muslim Studies summer school, Center of Study for Intercultural Dialogues (Spain), and the University of California, Berkeley, Granada, Spain, June 10, 2014.

“Violence against Muslim Women,” Keynote, International Women’s Day, IMDI, Drammen, Norway, March 8, 2014.


“Islamic Feminism, Secularism, and (De)colonization,” Summer School on Islam and Decolonization, University of Berkley and University of Granada, Granada, Spain, June 11, 2013.

“Qur’anic Hermeneutics and Internal Colonialism in Muslim Societies,” Summer School on Islam, Granada, Spain, June 17, 2013.

Why I Don´t Call Myself an Islamic Feminist
Summer School on Islam and Decoloniality, Granada, 2013.



“Thinking of Muslims in ‘Morally Relevant Ways,’” Keynote, Faith and Culture conference.  The Wheeler Center, Melbourne, Australia, June 16, 2012.

“Uncrossed Bridges: Islam, Feminism, and Secular Democracy,” Keynote, Istanbul Seminars: The Promises of Democracy in Troubled Times. Reset Doc and Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, May 21, 2012.

Women's Rights from within the Qur'an, Short film, Reset Doc,, 2012.

A Balloon for Allah

A Balloon For (To) Allah, a film by Nefise Ozkal Lorentzen, 2012.


“Encountering Islam: Women and Gender Equality,” Keynote, Critical Issues Symposium. Hope College, Holland, Michigan, October 5, 2011.

“On Anti-Anti-Foundationalism: Nasr Abu Zayd’s ‘Rethinking’ of the Qur’an,” Conference on Islamic Newthinking: In Honor of Nasr Abu Zayd. Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut of Essen and the University of Zurich, Essen, Germany, June 26-29, 2011.


“Abraham in the Qur’an: the unbound body,” Keynote, Conference on Religion and the Body.  Donner Institute for Research in the History of Religion, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo (Turku), Finland, June 16-18, 2010.

Interview with Fons Elders, Islam Unknown, Icarus Films, 2010

Islam Unknown: Interview with Fons Elders

video shot of myself

"Islam Unknown" A series by Fons Elders / An Icarus Films Release ISLAM UNKNOWN is a collection of eight interviews with unconventional Muslim intellectuals. In each episode, eclectic Dutch philosopher Fons Elders engages the thinkers in probing discussion on topics including gender, economics, sharia, secularism, colonialism, and the nature of religious authority. What emerges is a nuanced and illuminating series of contemporary perspectives on one of the world's great religions.

PART 1: Asma Barlas — God is Uncreated, God is Without Sex and Gender



“The Qur’an, Shari’a, and Women’s Rights,” Plenary Address, Re-imagining the Shari’a. University of Warwick, Venice, September 14, 2009.

“Islam and Body Politics: Inscribing (im)morality,” Keynote, Nordic Society for Philosophy of Religion conference on “Religion and the Politics of the Body.” University of Iceland, Reykjavek, June 26, 2009.

“Islamic Reform and Gender Equality: Fiqh, Feminism, or CEDAW?” Regional Conference on Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Societies. (UNIFEM/ ICIP) Jakarta, Indonesia, March 11-12, 2009.


“Globalizing Equality: revisiting the debate,” Third International Congress on Islamic Feminism. Barcelona, Spain, October 25, 2008.

“Would Spinoza Understand Me? Europe, Islam, and the Mirror of Difference.” Spinoza Lecture. University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 5, 2008.  (Also presented at the University of Nijmegen, June 17, 2008.)

“Believing Women in Islam: Between secular and religious politics and theology,” Spinoza Lecture. University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, May 8, 2008.


“Engaging Islamic Feminism: Provincializing feminism as a master narrative,” Workshop on Islamic Feminism. Tampere, Finland, August 31, 2007.

“Challenges of Reading/ Interpreting the Qur’an,” Master Class, Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World, Leiden, the Netherlands, June 25, 2007.

“Still Quarrelling over the Qur’an: Five theses on interpretation and authority.” Conference on Redefining Boundaries.  Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World, Amsterdam, June 24, 2007.

“Women in Islam: Between Oppression and (Self-) Empowerment,” Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Cologne, Germany, March 9, 2007.


“Does the Qur’an Support Gender Equality?” University Lecture.  University of Groningen, the Netherlands, November 23, 2006.

“Women’s Self-Emancipation through the Qur’an.” University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, November 21, 2006.

“Four Stages of Denial, or, My On-Again, Off-Again, Affair with Feminism: Response to Margot Badran,” Discussion Series, Global Fury/ Global Fear: Engaging Muslims. Ithaca College, October 23, 2006.


“Qur’anic Hermeneutics and Muslim Women’s Liberation,” International Congress on Islamic Feminism. Barcelona, Spain, October 29, 2005.

 “‘Hold(ing) Fast by the Best in the Precepts:’ The Qur’an and Method,” Conference on the Changeable and Unchangeable in Islamic Thought and Practice, Sarajevo, May 7-9, 2005 (read by Christian Moe).

“Women’s and Feminist Readings of the Qur’an.” Center for Middle East Studies, Harvard University, March 22, 2005.

Mainstreaming Extremism

screenshot of CSPAN presentation

Panel on Countering Religious Extremism (Muslim Public Affairs Council, California, Dec. 18, 2004).



“Gender Inequality and Scriptural Interpretation in Islam.” Stanford University, November, 22, 2004.

“Teaching about Women and Islam,” AMEWS Roundtable. Middle East Studies Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, November 21, 2004.

“Text, Tradition, and Reason: The Qur’an and Sexual Politics.” Cardozo Law School, Yeshiva University, October 10-14, 2004.

“Islam, Gender, and Reproductive Health.” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, D.C., October 4, 2004.

 “Globalizing Equality: Muslim Women, Theology, and Feminisms.” Library of Congress, March 26, 2004.

picture of myself on video

Islamic Feminism: Debate with Margot Badran, University of Torotono, Jan. 12, 2004.


“Reviving Islamic Universalism,” Conference on Contemporary Islamic Synthesis, Alexandria, Egypt, October 3-5, 2003.

“Determining Islamic Authority in North America,” Conference on Islam in America.  Harvard Divinity School, March 8, 2003.


“Challenging Patriarchal Interpretations of Islam,” Anderberg Lecture, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, November 7, 2002.

“Islam, Feminism, and Women,” Robert L. Bernstein Symposium on Fundamentalism and Modernity. Yale University, April 12-13, 2002.

 “Will the ‘Real’ Islam Please Stand Up?” Master’s Tea Presentation at Silliman College. Yale University, February 21, 2002.

Introducing bell hooks, October 3, 2001.

Welcome; thank you for coming. I’m Asma Barlas and I teach politics here at Ithaca College and I’m also currently the director of the Center for the Study of Culture, Race, and Ethnicity.

Today is the second event in our discussion series on race that the Center is co-sponoring with the office of the Provost, the Office of Multicultural Affairs, and the Cinema on the Edge program. The discussion series is meant to facilitate a campus wide dialogue on race, in particular, the history and meanings of race and racism, racial politics, and the problematic of representation.  It is this last area—of representation and images—that is the topic of  this evening’s session.

Our guest speaker tonight is bell hooks, celebrated feminist scholar, poet, social critic, and public intellectual. She is an original and prolific writer who is best known for her “deconstructive analyses of race and gender and her advocacy of black female fortitude.” Ms hooks first came to prominence in the early 1980s with Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism, which is ranked among the 20 most important women's books of the last two decades. Her other works are too numerous to list—she has authored 22 books—but include Black Looks, Feminist Theory, Talking Back, Teaching to Transgress, Class Matters, Breaking Bread, and most recently, All about Love and Salvation.

Ms hooks, let me confess that I have thought quite a bit about how to do a credible job of introducing you given the presence in the audience of so many feminists and even some friends of yours who know you and your work from a different vantage point than I do. As someone who came to the US in the 1980s, I have not shared the definitive experiences of segregation, the civil rights movement, the sexual revolution, and the feminist movement that shaped the sensibilities of so many women of my generation here, including your own. I cannot, therefore, speak as a cultural insider.

Indeed, I don’t even speak as a feminist because I find most feminisms in the West too heavily implicated in various forms of Othering, specially where it comes to Muslim women. I am also somewhat ambiguously situated in the racial hierarchy, being neither white nor black, the two axes along which most of the theorizing about race has tended to take place. And, yet, I am made ever more aware, almost daily, of the ways in which race impacts my life. And, finally, as a Muslim woman, I belong to that group of people that calls itself “believers” in a society where one needs to renounce the idea of God in order to be considered an intellectual.

It was in thinking of my marginality vis-à-vis not only the dominant white US culture, but even yourself, that I realized that perhaps your introduction at my hands may be the best tribute to someone who has occupied as many margins simultaneously as you have in your life.

Having listed some of the ways in which we differ, let me now count the ways in which your work has, in fact, shaped my sensibilities thus persuading me of the truth of your claim that one can reach “across the boundaries of class, gender, and race” to construct mutual understanding.  As someone engaged in a critique of Muslim patriarchal readings of Islam, I share a fear that you articulated a while ago—and from here on I’m going to use many of your words as my own—that with my work “I enter a discourse, a practice, where there may be no ready audience for my words, no clear listener, uncertain, then, that my voice can or will be heard” (PMB 1990). Shared uncertainties are no less necessary for creating solidarities than shared certainties and by admitting your anxieties, you have also opened up to question the “absence of doubt” that marks so much work in the academy, including feminist work and work that you call “radically chic.”

And yet, in spite of my fears, like you, I have chosen to press on, believing that I have a right to talk back and to adopt gestures of defiance that I feel are necessary for piercing “the wall of denial” that exists in all sexist and racist cultures.  Your work has helped me to realize that the reason I don’t see myself reflected in the works of white feminists is because of their tendency to mask “acts of racist aggression as affirmation,” including, most notably, their embrace of women of color as sister-Other.

It is through your conceptual lens that I have learned to recognize how difference itself has been exoticized and commodified and how this commodification permits the consumption of the Other. Like you, I have viewed moments of anger and pain as moments also of self-acknowledgment and clarification. Unlike you, however, I want to dwell for a while longer in this place of anger before I can undertake that journey to love that you feel can liberate us from rage. It is your critique of representation that most enables me to understand the limits to which I can explain what it means to be a Muslim in the US today, in the face of a 1,400 year long history of representations of Muslims as everything from the Antichrist to terrorists.

Your work first helped me to understand how the “liberal belief in a universal subjectivity (the idea that we are all people)” can enable and abet a politics of domination and how one may defend standpoint epistemologies without giving in to essentialism. Most of all, your work reaffirms me in my belief that I need to speak out on behalf of ideas I value, no matter how unpopular, to embrace my doubts and fears as a way to understand myself and others better, to choose political solidarities with integrity, and to continue to struggle against the “culture of cultivated naiveté” (as a friend calls it) that exists here.

What more credible introduction can I give you in the absence of shared histories, experiences, and epistemologies than to acknowledge your profound credibility in my own life and the ways in which your work has formed my sense of self and as a result of which you endure within me?

bell hooks, welcome to Ithaca College!



"On Interpretation and Exceptionalism," Ithaca College, October 29, 2001.

“Jihad vs. Terrorism: Interpretive Confusion or Exceptionalism?” Karachi, Pakistan, December 20-21, 2001.


“Muslim Women and Sexual Oppression: Reading Liberation from the Qur’an,” Macalester College Roundtable, Minnesota, October, 2000.


“The Qur’an and Hermeneutics: Reading the Qur’an's Opposition to Patriarchy," Conference on Qur’an and Hermeneutics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, October, 1999.