School Discipline -- an overview statement about discipline issues.

School Discipline Resources -- lots of useful links.

Big Racial Gap in Suspension of Middle School Students -- a 2010 report that documents the racial disparity in school suspension rates, raising serious questions about discipline policies and how they are implemented.

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment -- a 2000 study that presents evidence of racial and gender inequalities in school disciplinary practices in the U.S.

Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence -- a critical analysis of zero tolerance and related disciplinary policies and practices.

Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? -- a review of the research and recommendations for school practice -- a study conducted by a task force formed by the American Psychological Association.

Unintended Consequences: The Impact of Zero Tolerance -- a critical analysis of the effect of zero tolerance policies in Kentucky schools.

Beyond Zero Tolerance -- a good article that argues "schools don't need extreme policies to be safe and secure."

School Discipline: An Uneven Hand -- a recent study that reveals a "race-based discipline gap" in Seattle schools -- i.e., racial/racist patterns in discipline rates and practices.

An Examination of Racial Discrimination in U.S. Schools -- a valuable research report from March 2000 -- includes information about disiplinary policies, tracking, teachers/teaching, graduation rates, and more.

Building Safe and Responsive Schools -- lots of links, studies, publications, information about model programs, and more.

Conflict Resolution/Peer Mediation Project -- "a program designed to help students learn interpersonal skills important for the development of prosocial behaviors and constructive conflict management."

Bullying -- good resources about the problem and model programs addressing it.

Bullying Prevention -- good program ideas from the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.

Success in Student Achievement and School Discipline at Northern Elementary School -- a study that shows: 1) the connection between disciplinary policies and the achievement gap, and 2) how one school changed from one of the worst schools in its county to one of the best, as a result of changes in its approach to discipline and its treatment of youth.

Alternatives to Expulsion -- a good resource site about zero tolerance and expulsion policies.

Behavior Advisor -- lots of different strategies/ideas for managing student behavior and promoting conflict resolution.

School Discipline Issues and Practices -- a number of good sources.

Classroom Discipline Techniques and Resources -- links to many articles about issues of discipline -- includes articles on praise and positive reinforcement.

What Works: Five Promising Discipline and Violence Prevention Programs -- a good article.

Discipline as a New Teacher -- a resource aimed at new teachers -- includes lots of links.

Links to Classroom Management Sites -- offers lots of good links including ones that address working effectively with ADD/ADHD students.

Classroom Management Ideas and Examples -- specific techniques offered by teachers.

Classroom Management -- numerous links with many classroom management ideas.

ProTeacher Website -- provides lots of ideas for classroom management.

American Federation of Teachers on School Discipline and Related Issues -- a number of articles offered by this teacher's union.

Guidance for Effective Discipline -- an article by the American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health -- written for parents, caregivers, and teachers.

The "You Can Handle It All" Web Site -- a general resource on many topics related to discipline -- presents a database of over 100 "misbehaviors" and possible solutions.

Some Good Books and Articles

Curwin, R. and Mendler, A. 2001. Discipline with Dignity. Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Hoover, R. and Kindsvatter, R. 1997. Democratic Discipline: Foundation and Practice. Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Kauffman, J. & Burbach, H. 1997. On Creating a Climate of Classroom Civility. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(4): 320.

Kohn, A. 2001. Beyond Discipline:From Compliance to Community Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Lantieri, L. 2008. Building Emotional Intelligence. Sounds True Press.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. 1999. Respect: An Exploration. Perseus Books.

MacKenzie, R. 1996. Setting Limits in the Classroom: How to Move Beyond the Classroom Dance of Discipline. Roseville, CA: Prima.

Short, P., Short, R. & Blanton, C. 1994. Rethinking Student Discipline: Alternatives That Work. Corwin Press.

Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A, & Peterson, R. 2002. The Color of Discipline:
Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. Urban Review, 34, 317-342.

Skiba, R. & Sprague, J. 2008. Safety Without Suspensions. Educational Leadership, 66(1): 38-43.

Townsend, B. 2000. Disproportionate Discipline of African American Children and Youth: Culturally Responsive Strategies for Reducing School Suspension and Expulsions. Exceptional Childnen, 66, 381-391.


Rice, S. 2009. Education for Toleration in an Era of Zero Tolerance School Policies: A Deweyan Analysis. Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 45(6): 556-571.

Martinez, S. 2009. A System Gone Berserk: How Are Zero-Tolerance Policies Really Affecting Schools? Preventing School Failure 53(3): 153-158.

Covell, K. 2009. The Rights Way to Educate Children. Education Canada 49(1): 54-57.

Schachter, R. 2010. Discipline Gets the Boot. District Administration 46(1): 26-28, 30, 32.

Brownstein, R. 2010. Pushed Out. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review 75(7): 23-27.

Discipline in School: What Works and What Doesn’t -- a guide for teachers and parents citing reasons for student misbehavior and ways to deal effectively with misbehavior.

Back to School: Zero Tolerance Makes Discipline More Severe, Involves the Courts -- a Pittsbugh Post-Gazette article citing extreme examples of the Zero Tolerance policy, which in some cases may go too far.

Who Killed School Discipline? -- an article discussing school discipline and how court rulings have affected it.

School Discipline: Tougher on African Americans -- an editorial exploring racism in schools, particularly in the fact that black students are written up and disciplined more often than white students.

Robbins, C. 2005. Zero Tolerance and the Politics of Racial Injustice. The Journal Negro Education, 74: 2-17.

School Practices for Equitable Discipline of African American Students -- an article discussing the idea that African Americans are often encouraged to act out by culture. It challenges educators to think critically about the reasons why a student is misbehaving before employing disciplinary measures.

Discipline: Suspensions, Expulsions & IEPs -- a website that suggests educational possibilities for students who have been expelled. It also discusses legal parameters regarding suspension and expulsion focusing on student’s rights.

Martinez, S. 2009. A System Gone Berserk: How Are Zero-Tolerance Policies Really Affecting Schools? Preventing School Failure, 53(3): 153-58.

Sugai, G. 2009. Beyond the Discipline Handbook. Education Digest, 75(30): 37-41.

Discipline Gets the Boot -- this article talks about how many schools, especially urban ones, are moving away from zero tolerance policies in favor of PBS and Restorative Justice programs.