Improving Achievement for English Learners: Conclusions from 2 Research Reviews -- a 2006 article that provides good background and overview and states explicitly that: "Instruction in the primary language helps English learners achieve. If at all possible, academic instruction in the primary language should be a part of the educational program of ELLs."

Who's Left Behind: Immigrant Children in High and Low LEP Schools -- a Sept. 2005 report documenting that 70% of the nation's LEP students are enrolled in 10% of the nation's schools. And, most of these schools are poorly funded and struggle to provide appropriate services for these students, many of whom come from backgrounds of limited resources.

Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Language Acquisition and Educational Achievement of English-Language Learners -- a 2008 report that provides valuable overview information, perspective, questions and concerns.

The National Immigration Forum -- an organization that "advocates and builds support for public policies that welcome immigrants and refugees to the United States."

Student Profiles -- Eight profiles of ELL students including audio interviews with them.

Teen Immigrants: Five American Stories -- a documentary that "introduces you to the hearts and minds behind unfamiliar faces, helping to break down negative stereotypes, celebrate diversity, and gain tolerance and understanding across lines of color and nationality. The program portrays the variety of challenges young immigrants face, but it also emphasizes what we all have in common." -- at this website tyou may read a transcript and interviews and view clips from the documentary.

Immigration Transforms Communities -- a 2009 article about the cultural and linguistic changes that have taken place in the community and schools of Springdale, Arkansas -- includes discussion of things educators there have done to address the needs of their growing population of ELL students and families.

ELLs and the Law: Statutes, Precedents -- a brief overview of the the key precedent setting court cases guiding policy regarding the education of English Language Learners.

The Language Policy Website -- a site by James Crawford a researcher and writer who has focused on issues related to teaching non-native speakers of English for over 20 years.

Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition -- a website that describes the work of animportant researcher in the field of second language learning.

Funding Disparities Squeeze ELL Efforts -- a 2009 article about the challenges of funding and developing effective programs for English Language Learners.

Learning the Language -- a blog site by Mary Ann Zehr, a reporter for Education Week who focuses on issues related to English language learners.

A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education -- a 1998 review of bilingual education research by J.P. Greene, professor at the Univeristy of Texas.

How Do You Support Second-Language Learners in the Classroom -- a short video with some good teaching ideas about how to value and support English language learners in the classroom.

CLNet Bilingual Education -- discussion boards, history, instructional programs, and more.

The "English for the Children" Organization -- website of the "English only" group that wants to eliminate bilingual education from U.S. schools.

Mathematics Achievement of Language Minority Students During the Elementary Years -- a brief 2008 report by the National Center for Education Statistics.

English as a Second Language -- a resource site for ESL learners who want to improve their English through use of materials and links on the internet.

Masters in ESL -- this is a site providing research and information about bilingual education, teaching English to speakers of other languages, and more -- includes information about graduate certification programs in the U.S.

Raising Multilingual Children -- this website is great for parent's who want to raise bilingual or multilingual children. It offers resources and books for parents to learn about a child's inner instinct to want to learn language and to communicate.

Dave's ESL Cafe -- this site offers a variety of materials for ESL and EFL teachers and students. Teachers and students can go into individual chats or group chats to discuss issues of relevance.

Elizabeth Claire's Easy English NEWS -- This site provides free materials and news articles for teachers of ELL students. 

A Nation with Many Languages -- A policy study about the problems facing ELL students and their educators.  Thestudyt looks at misconceptions about ELL students, statistics showing increasing numbers of ELL students in public schools, state and federal legislation regarding ELL students, and recommendations for educators who instruct ELL students.

Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center -- This website is a great resource for those who teach, or want to teach, ELL in upstate New York.

Lanternfish -- This website provides free worksheets/flash-cards and advertises jobs for ELL/TEFL teachers.
World Music Press -- Top quality, award winning multicultural music-books, recordings, and choral music for educators, community outreach programs, and music lovers.

ESL Flow -- this website provides ideas for teachers of English as a Second Language.

I Teach, I Learn: Educational Ideas and Solutions -- the mission of this site is to provide opportunities for learning to students and educators from all cultural, linguistic, and economic backgrounds. free online Spanish Dictionary -- this site offers audio clips of individual words in both Spanish and English. --  This is a website created for children who are deaf or hard of hearing that uses both written English and sign language. It includes interactive games, videos, and science experiments that teachers or parents can utilize to engage deaf or hard of hearing students.

Some Good Books and Articles

Ambert, A. 1991. Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language: A Research Handbook. Garland.

Andrews, J. F., & Rusher, M. (2010). Codeswitching Techniques: Evidence-Based Instructional Practices for ASL/English Bilingual Classroom. American Annals of the Deaf, Vol 155 , 407-424.

Battiste, M. Micmac Literacy and Cognitive Assimilation. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Mokakit Indian Education Research Association. July 26, 1984.

Brooks, K & Karathanos, K.  2009.  Building on the Cultural and Linguistic Capital of English Learner (EL) Students.  Multicultural Education, 16(4), 47-51.

Campano, G. 2006. Immigrant Students and Literacy. Teachers College Press.

Chamot, A. 1994. The Calla Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Charity-Hudley, A. and Malinson, C. 2011.  Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools. Teachers College Press.

Crawford, J. 1999. Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice. Bilingual Education Services.

Crawford, J. 2000. At War with Diversity: U.S. Language Policy in an Age of Anxiety. Multilingual Matters.

Cummins, J. 1996. Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.

Cummins, J. 2001. Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 71(4): 649-675.

Darder, A. et al., (Eds.) 1997. Latinos and Education: A Critical Reader. Routledge.

Faltis, C. 2001. Joinfostering: Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Classrooms. Merrill Prentice Hall.

Farruggio, P. (2010). Latino Immigrant Parents' View of Bilingual Education as a Vehicle for Heritage Preservation. Journal of Latinos and Education, 3-21.

Fitzgerald, Jill. 2000. How Will Bilingual/ESL Programs in Literacy Change in the Next Millennium. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(4): 520-523.

Garcia, E. and Frede, E. 2010. Young English Language Learners. Teachers College Press.

Genesee, F. 1994. Educating Second Language Children: The Whole Child, the Whole Curriculum, the Whole Community. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Himmele, P. & Himmele, W. 2009. The Language Rich Classroom. ASCD.

Igoa, C. 1995. The Inner World of the Immigrant Child. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jobe, V. 2005. What Does It Take for English-Language Learners to Succeed in a Society Where They Are Not Expected to Succeed. Childhood Education, 82(1): 44-46.

Kottler, E. 1994. Children with Limited English: Teaching Strategies for the Regular Classroom. Corwin Press.

Krashen, S. 1996. Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Language Education Associates.

Krashen, S. 1998. Condemned Without a Trial: Bogus Arguments Against Bilingual Education. Heinemann.

Lucas, T. et al., 1990. Promoting the Success of Latino Language Minority Students: An Exploratory Study of Six High Schools. Harvard Educational Review, 60(3): 315-340.

Macedo, D. 2000. The Colonialism of the English Only Movement. Educational Researcher, 29(3):15-24.

Macrory, G. (2006). Bilingual Language Development: What do Early Years Practitioners Need to Know? Early Years, Volume 26 , pp. 159-169.

Martin-Beltran, M. (2010). The Two-way Language Bridge: Co-constructing Bilingual Language Learning Opportunities. Modern Language Journal, Vol 94, 254-277.

McCollum, H. et al., 1993. Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Family Literacy and Parent Involvement. U.S. Department of Education.

McLeod, B. 1994. Language and Learning: Educating Linguistically Diverse Students. SUNY Press.

Orelus, P. 2011.  Courageous Voices of Immigrants and Transnationals of Color. Peter Lang.

Ovando, C. et al., 2003. Bilingual & ESL Classrooms: Teaching in Multicultural Contexts. McGraw Hill.

Padilla, R. & Benavides, A. (Eds.) 1992. Critical Perspectives on Bilingual Education Research. Bilingual Press.

Padillo, A. et al., (Eds.) 1990. Bilingual Education: Issues and Strategies. Sage.

Perez, B. & Torres-Guzman, M. 2002. Learning in Two Worlds: An Integrated Spanish/English Biliteracy Approach. Allyn and Bacon.

Reyes, M. 1992. Challenging Venerable Assumptions: Literacy Instruction for Linguistically Different Students. Harvard Educational Review, 62(4): 427-446.

Reyes, P. et al., (Eds.), 1999. Lessons from High Performing Hispanic Schools: Creating Learning Communities. Teachers College Press.

Ribeiro, L. 2005. Multicultural Training: Familiarity Breeds Success. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 28.

Richard-Amato, P. & Snow, M. 1992. The Multicultural Classroom: Readings for Content-Area Teachers. Longman.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2008. Linguistic Genocide in Education or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Orient Longman.

Slavin, R. & Calderon, M. 2001. Effective Programs for Latino Students. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Soto, L. 1997. Language, Culture, and Power: Bilingual Families and the Struggle for Quality Education. SUNY Press.

Spener, D. 1988. Transitional Bilingual Education and the Socialization of Immigrants. Harvard Educational Review, 58(2): 133-153.

Stewart, S. 2006. First Nations Education: Financial Accountability and Educational Attainment. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(4): 98-1018.

Thomas, W. 1999. Accelerated Schooling for English Language Learners. Educational Leadership, 46.

Tse, L. 2001. "Why Don't They Learn English?" Separating Fact from Fallacy in the U.S. Language Debate. Teachers College Press.

Tucker, G., & Alison, D. (2003). Some Thoughts Regarding Bilingual Education Programs. McGill University

Valdes, G. 2001. Learning and Not Learning English: Latino Students in American Schools. Teachers College Press.

Valdes, G. 2011. Latino Children Learning English: Steps in the Journey. Teachers College Press.

Valencia, R. (Ed.) 1991. Chicano School Failure and Success. Falmer Press.

Valenzuela, A. 1999. Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. SUNY Press.

Varghese, M. & Stritikus, T. 2005. Nidie Me Dijo (Nobody Told Me): Language Policy Negotiation and Implications for Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(1): 73 - 88.

Walsh, C. 1996. Pedagogy and the Struggle for Voice: Issues of Language, Power and Schooling for Puerto Ricans. Bergin & Garvey.

Wolf, M. K., Herman, J. L., & Dietel, R. 2010. Improving the Validity of English Language Learner Assessment Systems. CRESST Policy Brief No. 10 - Full Report. University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

Zehr, M. 2005. State Testing of English-Learners Scrutinized. Education Week, 15:3.

Zentella, A. 1997. Growing Up Bilingual: Puerto Rican Children in New York. Blackwell.

Zimmerman, L. 2000. Bilingual Education as a Manifestation of an Ethic of Caring. Educational Horizons, 78(2): 72-76.

Films & Videos​​​​​​​

Bilingualism: A True Advantage -- a documentary about successful bilingual education.

Hispanic Education at the Crossroads -- a film about educational issues and effective schools for Latino youth.

Speaking in Tongues -- a documentary with 3 stories about different types of ELL/bilingual education experiences.

One Child, Two Languages -- a documentary about the experiences of being an ELL in school.

High School of American Dreams -- a documentary about a NYC high school for new immigrant youth who speak very little English.